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Question 1 a
The National Quality Standard is a key aspect of the National Quality Framework and it explains the seven key quality areas that are important to outcomes for children. The National Quality Framework is supported by the Education and Care Services National Law and Education and Care Services National Regulations. The two of them together outline the National Quality Standard and the regulatory framework for most of the long day care centres for children, preschool and kindergarten, family day care and outside school hours care services in all states and territories of Australia.
Question 1 b
The purpose of the National Quality Standard is to set a national benchmark for the provision of quality education and care services in Australia. It helps families and devices to understand the meaning of a quality service which allow them to make an informed judgement when it comes to making decisions about the services that provide care and education to their child. When the parents have a measurement for quality they can take better decisions when it comes to making choices for their children.
Question 1 c
The accredited services will be gauged on the basis of 18 stands which are under 7 Quality areas. These standards are outcomes of high level commitments. The services will be measured by by a national quality rating and assessment process that reflects a national approach to the assessment. Each service will receive a particular rating for each quality area which is seven along with an overall rating. These ratings must be displayed by the child care service and will be published on the online website of the new national body, ACECQA, and My Child website. The services need to meet all the elements within a stands and all the standards within a quality area and to meet the National Quality Standard for that quality area.
Question 1 d
The seven quality areas are
The 5 domains of development
Physical Health and Wellbeing
Physical development includes mastering movement, balance and fine and gross motor skills. During early childhood, your child's balance improves. He can walk on a line or small balance beam and balance on one foot. The child also develops the skill to throw and catch a ball, walk up and down stairs without assistance and do somersaults. At this age the child begins mastering motor skills that allow him to build block towers, draw circles and crosses and use safety scissors.
Social development refers to the child’s ability to make and maintain relationships. The child cooperates with others during early childhood and begins to develop conflict resolution skills. She enjoys attention and may show off, while still showing empathy for others. At this age your child enjoys group games and begins to understand the concept of playing fairly. She can tell the difference between fantasy and reality, but enjoys imaginative play with friend
Children develop their emotional skills through their social interactions and relationships. These emotional skills include the capacity to express, recognise and regulate their emotions; and recognise and understand other people’s emotions. As children’s emotional skills develop they are more able to engage productively in tasks, have positive experiences, feel confident, and cope with setbacks and frustrations. This is central in organising and motivating children’s behaviour and the development of children’s sense of self and social skills.
Language and Cognitive Skills
Cognitive development includes skills pertaining to learning and thinking. During early childhood the child develops the ability to sort objects and can organize materials by size or colour. His attention span increases and he seeks information through questions, such as "how?" and "when?" which is understood in the language that I introduced to the child. By the end of early childhood, he can count to 10, knows his colours and can read his name. He knows the difference between fact and fiction, making him capable of understanding the difference between the truth and a lie, according to the National Quality Standard
Communication skills and General Knowledge
Communicative development includes the child's skills to understand the spoken word and express her verbally. During early childhood the child goes from speaking in short sentences to speaking in sentences of more than five words. The child, once understandable only to those closest to them, now speaks clearly enough that even strangers understand the words. They talks about experiences, shares personal information and understands positional concepts such as up and down and it becomes possible to carry on a back-and-forth conversation
In Article 2 the United Nation Convention on the Rights of Child states that there should be no discrimination on the basis of the child's or the family's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status. For example if a child comes to day care with a parent who belongs to another ethnicity or country like Africa, India or china, there should be absolutely no discrimination on the basis of these factor. They should be given equally importance and impart the same education as any other child of the country. Also there should be no question asked about the religious belief of the child or the parent when they are coming to a day care since this is against Article 2. Also if a day care finds that a child is suffering from dyslexia or any other form of disability then those should be absolutely no grounds to refuse him or her entry into the centre. All children have equal rights to education and child care
|Age of Child||Physical Activity Recommendations||Examples of suitable activity that can be offered|
|Birth to 1yr||For healthy development, supervised floor based play is recommended on a safe environment for kids this age||For example, a baby gym which has toys in the centre whet the baby can lie and play with such that they are trying to teach these toys which re suspended from the baby gym is a suitable activity
The activity will enhance their crawling, pulling up to a standing position, creeping whilst using an object for
support, and finally walking
|1 to 3||should be physically active every day for at least three hours that can be spread throughout the day||Physical activity for toddlers is can include active play and learning locomotors skills like including running, jumping, hopping, galloping and skipping
Activity may also include stability skills that include balance and climbing. Also experimentation with object control skills such as kicking, catching, throwing, striking, and rolling
|3 to 5||The same as above since they should be active for at least 3 hours cumulatively in the day||Gymnastic based activity where they v=can turn , stand up on their heads and also water familiarisation|
|5 to 12||They should indulge in vigorous activity for a minim of 60 minutes every day||Playing sports like tennis or swimming is a good physical activity|
Question 4 B
The six benefits are
Gemma is a 20 month child and it is essential that when she and her mom come in the day care provides her with an environment where Gemma’s mom feels it is safe for her to leave her child. First an orientation will be provides to Gemma’s mom where she will be updated on the various features of the child care and she will be informed about all the safety measures and the child development activities that is undertaken by the child care centre to ensure that the child and the mom is comfortable.
After that the supervisor will take an account of all Gemma’s activity with respect to her food habit, sleeping pattern, an allergies, resting and toileting habits. Note sill be made and these notes will be used to understand the individual needs of Gemma. Also in the first few weeks interaction will Gemma will take place such that she does not feel that she is in an alien environment. Also constant interaction with Gemma’s mom will take place in the first few weeks to know more about the family and her daily habits such that her cultural practices and routine should be disturbed in the least possible manner possible.
The five ways in which a cares getting can provide a welcoming atmosphere to parents and children are
The three methods use to educate children about sun safety is
Have the children decorate hats to be worn outside using fabric paints and other art materials of the teachers’ or children’s choice. Ask the children why they need a hat and what part of the body the hat protects. You may want to point out features of certain hats that help in protecting the face from the sun, such as visors and large brims
Have the children decorate their own T-shirt using fabric paints and other art materials of the teachers’ or children’s choice. Ask the children why they need a shirt and what part of the body the shirt protects. You may want to point out the features of a long-sleeved shirt versus a T-shirt or sleeveless shirt.
Draw the children’s attention to the position of the sun. Talk about the areas of the playground that are shaded. Ask if anyone has noticed whether the shade moves. On a sunny day, go outside and place the Popsicle sticks into an upright position, anchoring it in a solid base (like modelling clay) so that it won’t fall over. Draw the shadow’s line with chalk on the flat surface and mark the time of day. Redraw the shadow line at different times during the day. Do not move the stick. Ask the children, “Why did the shadow move?” “What else creates a shadow?” Then explain, “Shadows make shade that protects us from the sun. That’s why we stand in the shade and wear hats with wide brims to protect our skin
The sun safety practices used in early childhood education and care services are given below
Staff, educators and children are required to wear sun-safe hats that protect their face, neck and ears.
Sun-safe hats include:
Please note that baseball caps and visors are not sun-safe hats.
Children without a sun-safe hat are required to play in an area protected from the sun (e.g. under shade, veranda or indoors) or will be provided with a spare hat.
Staff, educators and children are required to wear sun-safe clothing that covers as much of the skin (especially the shoulders back and stomach) as possible. This includes wearing:
Staff, educators and children are required to apply at least SPF30+ broad-spectrum water-resistant sunscreen 20 minutes before going outdoors and reapply every 2 hours. Sunscreen is stored in a cool, dry place and the expiry date is monitor.
Staff and educators are required to act as role models and demonstrate sun-safe behaviour by:
wearing a sun-safe hat, clothing and sunscreen, and using shade wearing sunglasses (optional) that comply with the Australian Standard 1067 (Sunglasses: Category 2, 3 or 4) encouraging families and visitors to role model positive sun-safe behaviour when at the service.
Services are required to incorporate sun protection information regularly into learning programs and communicate information to staff, educators, families and visitors.
An educator knows the measures taken for sun safety by meeting the t National Quality Framework requirements and becoming a Sun Smart Centre which can help the child care services to meet the National Quality Standard and National Regulations requirements. The Education and Early Childhood Services (Registration and Standards) Board often refers education and care services to the Cancer Council for information and advice about their sun protection policy. In many cases shade planning and design will involve more than simply planting a tree or establishing a new shade structure. A well-considered shade project will result in shade that:
You can see sunlight and feel heat (infrared radiation), but you cannot see or feel UV radiation. It can be damaging to skin on cool, cloudy days and hot, sunny days. UV radiation comes directly from the sun. It can also be scattered in the air and reflected by surfaces such as buildings, concrete, water, sand and snow. UV radiation can also pass through light cloud. During sun protection times use a combination of sun protection measures to keep children well protected during outdoor play. It is recommended that all babies under 12 months are not exposed to direct sun during these times. A baby’s skin is thin, extremely sensitive and can burn easily. Sun protection is not required when UV levels are below 3 unless in alpine areas, outside for extended periods of time or near highly reflective surfaces such as snow. In order to avoid skin cancer which is very prevalent it is recommended to minimize the exposure to these rays however playing in the sunlight is also important since kids get vitamin D from it which is essential for their bone growth
Adults should wash their hand to avoid infection and spreading of germs in the following instances
The strategies are
The first thing is to ensure that the child is not punished since any type of scolding will affect the self-esteem of the child which is very undesirable. If a child is showing distress about toileting accidents, educators should respect the child’s needs and emotions and implement alternative method of toileting in consultation with the family. The supervisors at the care should know that the adults in charge of the children should be, calm, kind, and protective when there is a bathroom accident – and that the child will never be shamed or teased about this happening. Teasing from children about bathroom accidents needs to be stopped with the same commitment as one would stop another from bullying. The message we need to tell the children to be that they do not need to be ashamed of their bodies or of themselves, even if they accidentally do something that is socially unacceptable. Feeling alone and ashamed is destructive to a child’s well-being and joy in life. Give children room to talk about their feelings, but don’t be surprised if they don’t want to. For younger children the centre may enact stories about bathroom accidents out with their toy. This will allow the child to maintain his self-esteem and not feel bad about their accidents.
In order to deal with distress caused due to separation the following strategies can be used
According to the National Education and Care Services Regulations, providers of childhood education and care services need to take special care while designing their glass or glazed areas that are accessible by children and are 0.75 meters or less. The service provider needs to make sure that the glazed area that is being considered is completed glazed with safety class if required as per the laws and regulations of the Building Code of Australia. Additionally, in situations when such requirement is not existent, the glass or glazed areas used in the location must be treated specifically to avoid breaking or special barriers must be installed in front of them so that no child can get hurt because of the same
Some of the key policies that have been identified in the National Education and Care Services National Regulations for the management of care given to babies and children are listed below.
Care providers need to follow policies with respect to health and safety, wherein they must protect children from sun, take care of food and beverages given to the children and also must maintain water safety.
Regulation 168 suggests that any procedures for any form of incident, injury or trauma must be carried out only by the staff members who have been nominated and the parents of the child must be immediately informed.
Another policy with regards to infectious diseases suggests that care providers must immediately take suitable actions to prevent spreading of the same.
Specific policies with respect to staffing suggest that the care providers must develop a code of conduct for staff members so that they can be held responsible for different activities and actions.
Special procedures must be established in order to deal with any form of complaints.
The management of child care must include suitable policies to ensure that the records are kept confidential and no information is revealed to an external party.
One of the key policies as identified above is related to the infectious diseases, which is required at a care providing service to make sure that the children do not suffer because of their negligence according to the Australian Children’s Education & Care Quality Authority, 2013. According to this regulation, occurrence of an incident of infectious disease at an education and care service must be followed by adoption of measures so that the disease does not spread further and an occurrence of such an incident at a family day care residence needs to be followed by informing parent or emergency contact of every child so that they can be given suitable care at home. These policies and procedures are essential while managing care for babies and children to maintain their health and safety at the venue.
The code of ethics allows a day-care to outline the principles on which their day care should be based such that it is according to the UNICEF children’s rights. This way they ensure that they are ethically right. The principle like the ones given below allow the day care centres to function in a manner which creates a conducive environment or child development.
The strive to act in the best interests of all children and respect the rights of children as enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1991) and commit to advocating for these rights
Smacking or licking lips
Opening and closing mouth
Sucking on lips, tongue, hands, fingers, toes, toys, or clothing
Moving head frantically from side to side
They are ready to start eating solid food
By performing the tasks below, cues and preferences of each baby can be observed in the care centre. They are given as
It is important to accommodate individual routine since each baby is different and they may respond different to different cues. For example some babies may be comfortable during nappy change while other may start crying, In order to ensure that the baby is comfortable and does not cry, it is essential to understand the cues and responses of individual babies.
Other than cuddling and picking up the baby the following strategies can be adopted to comfort a baby
Question 23 a
Breast milk is a complete source of nutrients for your baby until six-months of age. Until this age, your baby’s digestive system is still immature and breast milk is easy to digest and offers the maximum protection against stomach infections
The Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents developed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) state that at 6 months of age, the baby needs additional iron from food and is physically ready to take on the challenge of learning to eat. Breast milk or formula, however, continues to be the most important source of nutrition. By about 12 months, the baby should be eating foods similar to those eaten by the whole family. This includes breads and cereals, fruit, vegetables, legumes, dairy foods, meat, fish and eggs. The Australian Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents recommend that a rice-based infant cereal is a good food to start with.
Once rice cereal is tolerated and enjoyed, vegetables and fruit can be offered. Vegetables such as potato, pumpkin, carrot and zucchini, and fruits such as stewed apple and pear, are commonly offered first. Cooked egg can be introduced between 10 and 11 months
Question 23 b
Breastfeeding has an extraordinary range of benefits. It has profound impact on a child’s survival, health, nutrition and development. Breast milk provides all of the nutrients, vitamins and minerals an infant needs for growth for the first six months, and no other liquids or food are needed. In addition, breast milk carries antibodies from the mother that help combat disease.
All infant formula has added vitamins, minerals and fats that babies need, which they can’t get from straight cow’s milk. Also, babies can’t digest cow’s milk as completely or easily as breast milk or formula. The protein level in cow’s milk is too high for babies, so some is taken out for infant formula which makes it a good alternative to breast milk.
Question 23 c
Parents will be informed about the baby’s feed during the day when the parent comes to pick up the child from the canter. A feedback form with the activities of the child will be given called the infant daily record. All information will be written in it. It’s necessary for such feedback since the parents will know when the child was fed last and accordingly feed the child such that they are not over fed or underfed. The parent will also know about the feeding time and the number of times the infant had milk and food to ensure that the child was well looked after.
Strategies used for positive communication with babies and toddlers
|Feeding||Ensure that everything is sterilized. Sterilise everything. It is vital that the entire baby's feeding equipment before each feed. Is sterilized since it kills germs that can gather on the baby's bottles and in the milk
Get comfortable with the baby before feeding so that the baby is relaxed and test the milk before giving it to the baby to ensure it’s not too hot or not too cold
It's best to make a fresh bottle of formula each time the baby needs a feed. Even if one stores formula milk in the fridge, bacteria can build up over a few hours
Label all infant bottles with the baby’s name and date at the care centre
Hold babies when feeding them
Prepare commercial infant feedings according to instructions
|Cots, sleeping area and bedding||· Only using a portable cot that has the Australian safety approval according to the Australian Standards coding AS: 2195.1999
· Checking the inside of the portable cot. And there should be no bumps, ledges and protruding parts that a child could hit their head on or snag their clothing. There should be no gaps where a child could trap fingers, toes or limbs.
· Making sure the mattress is firm and fits snugly without gaps on any sides.
· Checking the locking devices and making sure they are secure and childproof when the cot is assembled. If possible, test them in the shop before you buy the cot.
· Using the assembling instructions when erecting the cot for use.
· Maintaining the cot and checking for any wear and tear. Repairing or replacing any parts that have come loose or are not operating properly. Structural weakness can comprise the function of the cot and endanger the child placed inside it.
· Checking to see if there is a maximum weight usage for the cot.
· Making sure that all locking devices are properly latched before placing your baby inside.
· Removing all soft toys, pillows and cushions. Portable cots have the same SIDS recommendations that apply to a cot/basinets and cradles
· Avoid any mobiles or toys within reach, or with stretchy or elastic cords in or around the sleeping area.
|Safe sleep practices||· Do not place baby’s bed near any cords hanging from blinds or curtains, or electrical appliances. These can get caught around the baby’s neck.
· Keep heaters, lights and electrical appliances well away from where baby is sleeping to avoid the risk of overheating, burns and electrocution.
· Do not use bumpers as part of baby’s bedding and do not place any cushions, pillows, soft fluffy toys or comforters in their bed.
· Do not allow small objects in their cot, bassinet or cradle that could cause the baby to choke.
· Ensure the space above the bedding is free of objects such as pictures or mirrors that could fall or be pulled down.
· Never use V or U shaped pillows for children under 2 years of age. Small children can become wedged in the pillow and suffocate.
· Never use electric blankets, hot water bottles or heated wheat bags. Babies cannot escape from the bed or cot to cool down and they can’t remove bedclothes. A baby who becomes too hot is at an increased risk of SIDS.
|Nappy changing||Never leave a baby alone on a change bench.
Keep everything that could be a safety hazard to the baby out of reach, such as all chemicals, pins and creams.
When pins are in use, the safety catches must be on and they should be pointing outwards on the child's body
Should wear gloves while changing nappies to promote hygiene
always keep one hand on the child to prevent them from rolling or climbing off the change bench,
Before you begin, make sure that there is everything of need within reach so you do not need to leave the child
Have child proof locks on nappy bins such that they do not get their hand on soiled nappies
|Toys dummies and teething rings||· Read labels and packaging. Look for and follow the age recommendations and instructions about proper assembly, use and supervision.
· Toys that have small parts or small objects such as coins, batteries and nails should not be given to children under three years of age.
· Choose sturdy and well-made toys that can stand up to being bitten, tugged, sucked, jumped on and thrown around without falling apart.
· Check for sharp edges or rough surfaces that could injure your child.
· Ensure paint and fillings are non-toxic
· removing and immediately discarding packaging before giving a toy to a small child
· Rattles and tethers must be large enough that babies can’t fi t them completely into their mouths as this would be a choking hazard. Small ends (such as the rattle handle) must not fi t into a 50 x 35 mm hole, or if round must not fi t into a 43 mm diameter hole
|Travel in car||Babies learn from watching others. They copy what they see adults doing in the car. Make sure you act safely and do the right thing when you are with babies and young children.
Babies under six months of age must be restrained in a rearward facing child restraint when travelling in the car. The law states that children aged less than seven years old must travel in an approved child restraint or booster seat. The restraint must be:· an approved child restraint that complies with AS/NZS 1754
· Suitable for the child’s age and size. Restraint must match the size of your child’s body which is properly fitted to the vehicle.
· Purchased in Australia. It is illegal to use a child restraint that has been purchased overseas.
Other safety issues
Baby and any other children under four years of age must travel in the back seat of the car if it has two or more rows of seats. By law, the driver is responsible for ensuring that all passengers under the age of 16 are restrained correctly.
· Never leave baby unattended in the car – not even for a short time. It is illegal.
· Even in cooler weather, the temperature in a car can reach dangerously high levels in a short period of time. Babies and children may overheat.
· Develop good car safety habits. Always put baby in and out of the car on the kerb side, away from traffic.
· Never reverse car until you know where the children are.
Interaction with toddlers or babies could include singing to the child during their bathing time. This will make the child interactive with the parent or the family and also introduce them to music. The second interaction can be finger games with the baby while feeding the baby such that it is occupies as well as interactive. The could be talking to baby during diaper or nappy change in the everyday routine which will help the child build interaction with the family or at the care centre.
The games are given as below
Make some simple finger puppets by cutting the fingers off old gloves. Give each one ears, eyes and a mouth either by gluing pieces of felt or simply drawing them on with a felt-tip pen. Show your babies how you can make them sing, dance, tickle and kiss. And they will watch them come alive, and pretending that the puppets are real will help develop their imagination.
Attach a small soft toy to a brightly coloured ribbon. Dangle it in front of the baby and make it sway. When the baby reaches out and tries to touch or grab it, give the child lots of praise. This will help them r practise their hand-eye coordination. Choosing a squeaky toy may give the baby an extra reason to grab at it. Always be careful to keep the ribbon out of your baby's reach when they are unsupervised.
The baby doesn't need to be walking to have fun with a football. Place a lightweight, medium-sized ball in front and hold the baby firmly under their arms. Pick the child up and swing forward so the legs or feet make contact with the ball. By doing this you can help the child kick it across the floor. Swinging their legs will helps the baby to strengthen their tummy and leg muscles, and prepares them for playing football for real when the child is older and contribute to their development
The best way to adapt to a child’s individual cultural identity for a care setting is to get to know the families of a child in an abetter manner. Since every family is different and getting to know them means there is less chance of assumptions being made about backgrounds, cultures or practices? Asking families about their lives and culture is the best way to get to know them and what is important to them. When educators understand the experiences of families and their cultures, they are better able to support children with their development and learning.
Families are an important source of information and insight about their children and the hopes or concerns they might hold for them. Educators can ask families what is important to them and invite them to participate in the activities at the centre. An orientation session can assist new families develop positive relationships with the centre; Positive relationships support families, convey respect for diversity and nurture children’s social and emotional wellbeing. The centre should review policies and practices to promote inclusion and by increasing knowledge of accurate information to counter or dispel false beliefs regarding minority groups should be adapted by the centre
Question 30 a
Attachment theory was initially formulated by English psychiatrist John Bowl by, and the basic precept is that an infant instinctively behaves in many ways to maintain proximity to her primary caregiver and feels most secure when in close proximity to that person. Attachment between infant and caregiver begins to form early in the infant's life as the caregiver responds in a nurturing manner to the infant's signals—with breast or bottle, singing or cooing, holding and rocking. Slowly, the infant learns that a particular caregiver provides her with a safe, predictable, and comfortable world. Attachment begins to form and grow. In the mind of the infant, it is the beginning of the development of trust--the primary developmental task of the pre-verbal years.
Question 30 b
The attachment that forms provides a secure base from which the child feels free to explore the larger social and physical world. Early lack of positive caregiving causes later social consequences, since the type of attachment that forms between child and caregiver serves as an example for later social relationships. In a care setting is encourage that the care taker hols the baby in a tender manner and in case the child does not like hugs than the care taker can alternately find other ways of healthy touching, they need to create everyday routines such that the child feels secure. Care providers are also encouraged to eat with the children, be emotionally available and do activities with the children in their care. Also from a parents perspective especially the ones who work and are away from their children need to do research and evaluate where and with whom they place their children for a good portion of the day. They need to choose places where high-quality, responsive care is providing.
Question 30 c
Children develop a sense of belonging when they feel accepted, develop attachments and trust those who care for them. When children feel safe, secure and supported they grow in confidence to explore and learn which is in accordance with standard 5 and element 1.3 of that standard. The standards addresses the quality area of the National Quality Standard that focuses on relationships with children being responsive and respectful and promoting children’s sense of security and belonging. Hence it relates to the 5th quality of relationship with children.
Under the changes in the Public Health Act 2005, the parent has to prove an up to date child’s immunisation status on the basis of which it can be enrolled in a proved early childhood service. The care has the authority to ask the parent to show
The balance of natural and artificial light, ventilation and fresh air is maintained at the care setting by ensuring that the following elements have been met
This is important since the children should feel comfortable and they should get adequate exposure of sunlight which will be beneficial for them. Also the indoor and outdoor atmosphere should be conducive for the wellbeing of the children. The The physical environment plays a critical role in keeping the children safe; reducing the risk of unintentional injuries; contributing to their wellbeing, happiness, creativity and developing independence; and determining the quality of children’s learning and experiences. It also maximises the children’s engagement and level of positive experience and inclusive relationships due to which it is essential to the consider physical layout and resources in the environment,
Question 33 A
Bottle feeding at night contributes to the tooth decay of children. There is naturally occurring lactose in both breast milk and formula and when this combined with the plaque in a baby's mouth; it could erode the enamel of primary teeth. It is recommended that children should go from breast feeding to cups directly avoiding the bottles all together. Paediatric dentists had noticed a pattern of decay on the back of the upper front teeth in children which is an indication of a drink from bottle that has been held between the child's tongue and teeth for prolonged periods. This decay leads to pain for the children too. Also sometimes children tend to keep sucking the bottle long after they have gone to sleep due to which they suffer from oral and tooth decay
Question 33 B
Two ways of maintaining good oral heath in children
Three prevention strategies for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are given below
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