Solution Code: 1EIFE
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Task: Imagine that you have carried out a research project addressing the following question:
“What impact do basic sanitation services have on developing countries?”
The findings of your research are presented in tables on the following page.
Structure: The Research Report has the following format:
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The improved sanitation provided by the sanitation services has significant impact on the health of the people and economy of the developing countries. The evidence shave shown that investments for the basic sanitation, clean water and hygiene have brought the significant improvement in the health of people and also resulted in developmental and economic benefits. Through the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), significant progress is being made to improve the access of people in the developing nations to water and sanitation and this has resulted in increasing the access of more than 2 billion people to water and sanitation. Therefore, this report will provide the comprehensive review of literature to analyze the impact of the basic sanitation services in the developing countries.
According to Van Minh & Nguyen-Viet, (2011) “sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feaces” (p. 63). The improved sanitation facility is the way of separating the human excreta from the direct or indirect human contact. Basic sanitation facilities are the right of every individual (World Health Organization, 2015). One significant way of improving the health of people in the developing countries is through increasing the access of the people to clean drinking water and safe sanitation (Montgomery & Elimelech, 2007). This measure is less expensive and more effective. It has been found that there is slow progress in providing the basic sanitation facilities to the people in middle income or developing nations (Van Minh & Nguyen-Viet, 2011).
According to the report, in the last two decades over 2 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation service in the developing nations. However, there are still 2.6 billion people, who lack the basic access to improved sanitation facility. Seven out of 10 people live in the rural areas (Unicef, 2017). Two third of this population lives in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia . Many people living in the African countries have not gained the access to improved sanitation or access to clean water. According to the study Prüss?Ustün et al (2014) Inadequate drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are considered as the major risk factors for poor health in the low income countries. The burden of the water borne diseases and disease caused by the direct or indirect contact with the human excreta has reduced. For example according to the study of Wolf, et al (2014), states that the “overall effect for access to an improved sanitation facility on reduction in diarrhoea morbidity used was 28% (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59–0.88)” (p. 898).
53% population of the developing countries has received the adequate sanitation facility. The general public of the developing countries have understood the significance of the safe sanitation (Van Minh, & Nguyen-Viet, 2011). Therefore, there is an improvement in the health and reduction in the disease like acute respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases and many tropical diseases. However, there is still very less improvement in relation to sanitation. Though, the clean water access have significantly improved yet achieving the sanitation target is very low (Van Minh, & Nguyen-Viet, 2011). In Asia and sub-Saharan Africa only 50% population have been benefited by the improved sanitation services out of which 41% population is from the South Asia and 25% of the population from sub-Saharan Africa (Unicef, 2017).
The impact of the basic sanitation services was that in the year 2015, 5 billion people used the improved sanitation facility globally. These 5 billion people did not share their sanitation facility with other households. Therefore, it is considered as the basic sanitation, which is not shared with others (Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, 2017). In 2015 8% of the total world’s population (600 million people) used the shared sanitation facility, which can be considered as improved facility but limited sanitation service. However, 2.3 billion people in the world still lack the basic sanitation service and either use unimproved services or practice open defecation (World Health Organization, 2015). The limited sanitation services reflect that there are still the socio-economic constraints and the cultural practices that pose the significant barrier in the densely populated areas (Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, 2017). However, the basic sanitation services in the developing countries have resulted in improved sanitation facility for the people.
The impact of adequate sanitation services has provided the various health advantages on the health of children, households and communities. The study of Esper, London, & Kanchwala, (2013) worked towards determining the impact of basic sanitation services on children and pregnant women of Kenya. The study found that there was the decrease in the disease among children that were earlier caused by the poor sanitation. The basic sanitation services also reduced the finical burden of the medical expenses on the families (Esper, London, & Kanchwala, 2013). Study of Nkansah (2014) found that basic sanitation services have helped in reducing the rate of child mortality in Ghana. The sanitation facility has improved the health of breast feeding mothers and also improved the birth weight of the children.
The findings of the study suggest that though there has been improvement in the health and economic condition of the developing countries, due to the basic sanitation services (Nkansah, 2014). Yet, there is much more to be achieved. Despite of great progress for the basic sanitation facilities all over the world, the disparities in lack of access still prevails in the developing countries. All the developed nations have achieved the universal access, but the developing nations still lack the basic sanitation facilities. There are still 2.3 billion people in the developing countries that still lack the basic facility of sanitation and they are still forced for open defecation (Van Minh & Nguyen-Viet, 2011). There are various cultural, educational and socio-economic disparities, due to which people have not yet understood the significance of the basic sanitation services and facilities (Unicef Data, 2017).
Sources: Unicef Data. (2017).
Universal access to the basic sanitation facility is the right if every human. All the humans are required to have clean and healthy living conditions and basic facilities (Unicef Data, 2017). However, according to the evidences, securing the safe and adequate sanitation facility for everyone will take a long time. The poor sanitation has resulted in increasing many chronic diseases among the population of developing nations. However, the children are the easy targets of such disease, and therefore, the rate of mortality and illness is very high among the children below the age of five in the developing countries.
The economic impact of the poor sanitation is also very high. The economic cost is associated with the direct and indirect results of poor sanitation. The direct cost is the increased medical expenses of the family and the indirect cost is the lost income due to reduced productivity. Inadequate sanitation also results in reducing the access to clean drinking water, because the natural water resources are being infected by the practice of open defecation (World Health Organization, 2015). Though, some of the evidences have shown that there is little improvement in the people’s access to basic sanitation, yet the target is very far to be achieved soon.
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