Report and Guidelines for Data Evaluation - E Portfolio Assessment Answers

November 24, 2017
Author : Charles Hill

Solution Code: 1GCA

Question: Data Evaluation E Portfolio

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Data Evaluation E Portfolio Writing



Defining an appropriate material model and appropriate representative properties is key to obtaining accurate results in FEA. Even though for a preliminary analysis it may be sufficient to use one of the materials available in ANSYS library, as we move forward in our project design and look at our final design specifications it is important that we include the properties of the specific material we will be analysing. For that, experimental tests that allows to describe the behaviour (elastic and/or plastic regimes) are required.

Four different materials were tested in a tensile testing machine: balsa wood, acrylic and two metals that you are supposed to identify after analysing the experimental data. The purpose of having four different materials was to give you an idea of the different material behaviours (ductile vs brittle). In the case of balsa wood, the samples broke very early during the tensile test. This suggests that it may be required to prepare the surface of the samples before running the tensile tests.

Tensile Testing

We started by measuring the dimensions of the flat dogbone shaped specimens using callipers. Three specimens were used for each material. The dimensions measured include thickness, width and gage length as illustrated in Figure 1. These dimensions are required for both determining the setup of the tensile test (the test rate) and for post-processing the data extracted (stress and strain data).

The samples are clamped in within the grips of the tester, and the setup is input into the tester’s software. Test rate, thickness, width and gage length are input, and the software will return a report which will include these in addition to load-extension values registered. During the test the upper crosshead moves upwards deforming the sample in tension and the sample is pulled until necking and fracture occur in the reduced section. See refer to Annex A for

photographs of specimens and testing equipment.

Some of the samples may exhibit fracture somewhere other than the middle section of the gage length, e.g., near the shoulder of the specimen (shoulder is illustrated in Figure 1). For these tests we are not able to determine the total elongation.

Note: The tensile test generally leads to Young’s Modulus values that are too low. You still need to analyse the Young’s Modulus using the recorded data. However, to enable you to identify the material type tested the typical values are given in the corresponding data files(use these typical values for your ePortfolio tasks).

Test Data Analysis

After testing all four materials, based on the load-extension data extracted we calculated and

plotted for one of the tests:

? Engineering Stress-Strain curves

? True Stress-Strain curves

? Yield strength and corresponding strain

? Hardening curve based on a Power law

ANSYS Material Data input and FEA

In ANSYS we are able to add user defined Material Libraries and Materials. During this Practical Class we created one Material Library and added two metals to this library: 4340 High Tensile Steel and Aluminium 7075-T6. The FEA of a connecting rod loaded in compression at the power stroke of a piston was carried out using both materials and the results were compared.

See “SED302 - Practical Class 1_ANSYS Instructions.pdf” for reference.

ePortfolio Tasks

The results from the tensile testing run during the Practical Class of two different metals are provided to you in the files:

? Metal 1.csv

? Metal 2.csv

These files include:

? Load and extension values measured

? Specimen dimensions: gage length, width and thickness

You are expected to obtain from the data above, for both metals, the following:

? Young’s Modulus (?)

? Yield Strength, YP0.2%

? Engineering Stress-Strain Curve

? True Stress-Strain Curve

? Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS)

? Total Elongation (?????)

? Hardening coefficient, ?

Note: The tensile test generally leads to Young’s Modulus values that are too low. You still need to analyse the Young’s Modulus using the recorded data. However, to enable you to identify the material type tested the typical values are given below:

Metal 1: ?=200 GPa

Metal 2: ?=70 GPa

You should then create a Material Library in ANSYS to which you will add both metals’ material properties and run two Static Structural Analyses for the connecting rod (as described in “SED302 - Practical Class 1_ANSYS Instructions.pdf”): (i) using Metal 1 and (ii) using Metal 2 (use the typical values given above for the Young’s modulus).

Finally, in your ePortfolio, answer the following questions based on your data analysis for Metals 1 and 2 and based on your FE Analyses results:

? What types of metals have been tested in the Practical Class? Justify your answer.

? Which metal out of the two tested in the PracClass would be the best material to achieve the best safety factor for the connecting rod? Why?

? Which metal out of the two tested in the PracClass would be the best material to achieve the lowest possible weight? Why?

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Week 4 - T-Pipe: Mesh Convergence, Local Refinement

In order to construct a T – Pipe, a Mesh Convergence and local refinement, CAD-based models with auto-meshed models which are partially automated and used mainly for the static stress along with linear analysis models is used

The following steps needs to be followed to create a T-Pipe: Mesh Convergence, Local Refinement

  • Using the limited resources, create a mesh and analyze the model
  • Using the distribution of denser element, recreate the mesh model and again analyze it and compare the two results obtained
  • Unless or until the results obtained turns out to be satisfactory, we need to increase the density of the mesh

Thus, the obtained results will provide accurate results with a appropriate density and not depending more in computing resources.

The following steps are to be processed to modify mesh density

  • If we are using hand generated mesh:

    • Modify the number of divisions in the unmeshed and wireframe geometry
    • The other way is to use the surface mesh environment

  • When using 2D automated mesh
  • 2D Mesh à Tree View browser à Edit à 2D Mesh Generation à Change theMesh Density
  • When using the solid related mesh

3D settings of Mesh à Model Mesh Settingsà change the mesh size settings to preferred value à resize the value

Week 5 - Contact: Table Top Frame

The following steps needs to be followed in constructing Table top frame

  • In order to make sufficient space for add – on components, sides of the made are made with aluminum profiles along with grooves integrated (e.g. monitor holder, signaling equipments for safety process)
  • In order to use A4-sized training panels, we need to fix two brushed aluminum profiles
  • Inward facing brush rails are used to make sure that the fixed training panels are safe and the plug connections can be changed from one place to another
  • 3D settings are used for suitable fitting
  • Extension of profile to rear is added to the table
  • A separate kit represents the mobile experiment trolley is provided separately to the client
  • To include space for PC holders, C rails, and extension panels, a separate aluminum profiles along with grooves integrated are used
  • Dual casters are available with four numbers and brakes with two numbers
  • The top the table is measured 600 x 30 x 900mm (WxHxD) made of highly flexible chipboard with light grey color, textured 0.8mm along with laminate coating on both sides
  • Resistant protective edging was made with 3mm thick plastic
  • Coating and adhesives are PV-free
  • When using the automated process, 3D settings Table à Model Table Settingsà change the Table height, width and depth size settings to preferred value à resize the value

Week 6 - Roll Cage: Torsional FEA

The root cause for the high noise pollution is mainly due to strong torsional -lateral combination of gear systems, and in addition the combination of torsional and fluid dynamics will leady to great speed performance of gears. Therefore, we need to assess the sensitivity to increase the margin stability and also we need to manage the sub-synchronized vibrations

In order to perform the simulation technique, we need to input the equal and opposite loads at the same location and at the same suspension mounting points. The location that matches closely to the rear suspension is fixed constant to all degrees of freedom

FEA model is normally used for the applied torques between 1500Nm and 3750Nm range and the increment should be at 375Nm. The loads applied were increased incrementally to generate a torque graph compared with the angle of rotation. The slope represents the overall body torsion stiffness

Week 7 - Tripod: Buckling and Modal Analysis 

In the latest projects related with designs, the factor of safety (FOS) is calculated to ensure that the expected loadings are achieved to withstand. The calculations are purely based on mechanisms of failure and it is considered as a toughest task to achieve. When the design incorporated has a sufficient factor of safety, then we will consider that the associate structural failure with yielding

One of the method that involves Eigen value extraction and its associated model shape findings are Frequency extraction method and it is a kind of linear analysis which do not require of considering the assumption of initial stress and preloading

The modal analysis will eventually results in similar pattern with different frequency value. There will be an increasing trend in the modal frequencies and are due to the number of stiffners used in the model and it is of very important to cross check whether the other modes also represents the safe


The assumptions of plate analysis

  1. The plate should be elastic, homogenous and its nature should be Isotropic
  2. The plate should be flat initially
  3. The deflection should be small when compared to that of thickness
  4. The straight line of the mid plate should remain at perpendicular position even after bending it
  5. There should be minimal stress

The welding effect should be ignored

Week 9 - Bracket Parametric Optimization

In the vehicle structure designs, we need to always aim to achieve high stiffness and strength in combination by reducing the weigh, that is, we need to optimize the structures. The engine mount system consists of an engine, engine mounts and foundation normally represented as vehicle of the body. Since the engine heaviest and largest particle included in the vehicle and if, it is not properly inserted, then it will create huge vibrations in the body of the vehicle and also a front end of the sheet metal. The engine mount system behavior does not depend on the engine, but also on the overall system of the vehicle. Therefore, the complete system should be properly managed. The design of an engine mount system involves the following

1) Center of gravity location and its orientation

2) Individual mounts location and its orientation

3) Stiffness coefficient at each mount

The total process is followed using the flow chart given below

The objective of the topology optimization is to minimize the volume without involving the the bracket stiffness and strength as compared with base bracket, and therefore, we need to minimize the volume. The conditions are given below

  1. Stress constraint is defined (durability point of view)
  2. Manufacturing constraint is defined as a single draw direction

Finally, the comparisons is made between weight and component performance which will explain the structural optimization techniques that will produce cost effective higher quality products

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