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You are expected to incorporate relevant research and theory from the broader organisational behaviour literature (e.g., journal articles and business publications), not just the text (your reference list should include a minimum of ten academic references with at least 5 academic journals);
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Innovation is an integral part of any business activity. A business needs innovation to be successful. Innovation is usually regarded as devising something new. Innovation helps a business in gaining competitive advantage. Google is one of those companies that have achieved huge success with the help of innovation, people as well as the process. These three aspects are different in every organisation and the success or failure of an organisation depends upon these three aspects. Innovation refers to those activities that are new and different from others in the market and these activities will enable the business to outperform others (Priem, Li, & Carr, 2012). These three aspects have tendency to make a business sustainable as well as competitive. Google has been very innovative throughout is business operations and this is why it has achieved huge success in such a shorter span of time. In this manner the easy focuses on innovative operations of Google and how this innovativeness has helped Google in securing a vital position in the market (Bouncken & Fredrich, 2016).The essay will be focussing on concepts, theories and models suitable on this situation. In this manner the innovations of Google will be discussed along with the evidences from theory to arrive to the conclusion.
In the year 2013, Google has revealed its 9 principles of innovation and these principles are worth a discussion because it gives a new dimension to the field of innovation. At Dreamforce Summit in San Francisco these principles were revealed by Google’s chief social evangelist. At Google they believe that innovation comes from anywhere. It simply means that they support the fact that innovation can come from top down as well as bottom up. This is how they value their people and that helps in increasing competitiveness (Buliga, Scheiner, & Voigt, 2016). So, their first principle for innovation is that innovation can come from anywhere. This principle relates to the theory of innovation provided by Schumpeter. He suggested that every organisation has to be faster in adopting discontinuity and only then the company can adopt innovation. The second principle of innovation in Google is focus on the user. They support that the focus shall not be on money rather it shall be on the user. This is why Google improved its search capabilities so as to enhance the experience of the users. The third principle of innovation is aim to be ten times better. They believe that if someone wants to feel the innovation then the aim shall be kept 10 times. The executive also adds by saying that if an individual aims for 10 % then the change will just be incremental thus for radical change the target shall be 10 times. Their fourth principle is bet on technical insight. The company believes that every organisation has a unique insight and if it bets on it then innovation is not farfetched. The example of this principle can be traced from developing driverless car by Google. Their fifth and major principle of innovation is ship and iterate. Google believes that innovation comes from iteration and not from perfection (Keupp, Palmié, & Gassmann, 2012). This implies that a company shall not wait for perfection it shall ship the products early and then seek the help from users and iterate. This is because; Chrome is number one browser in a number of countries in the world. The sixth principle and major formula of Google is to give employees 20 percent time to do whatever they want to do. The relevance of this is that they will end up giving better suggestions for the improvement of services and it will enable innovativeness. The seventh principle is default to open processes. The eighth principle that Google has adopted is to fail well. Google believes in trying hard and getting failed because this is something that provides innovative ideas. Finally the last principle of innovation is to have a mission that matters. This will be the ultimate source of innovation (Leong, 2013).
The most noticeable secret of innovation of Google is empowering its employees. Google has always kept its pipeline of innovation going by tapping the employees and letting them percolate their ideas. The profits of Google have been increasing tremendously since past few years and all credit goes to innovation and its trust on employees (He, 2013). The latest facts and figures of Google also suggests that focus on people and giving people their freedom in the organisation ultimately helps in increasing the innovations within the organisation. Everett M. Rogers has provided a theory of innovation that is popularly known diffusion as theory of innovation. This theory suggests that innovation is communicated with certain channels over a period of time to the members of organisation. In this theory there are several stages of adoption. These stages are awareness, interest, evaluation, trail and adaptation (Capelllo, 2013). Along with this it also suggest that there are various factors that affect innovation in an organisation. These factors are individual characteristics, resistance to change, risk taking, etc. Google has controlled all these factors very effectively and due to that it has been able to adopt innovative practices in the company. The linear model of innovation also suggests that the technical changes happen in a linear fashion that starts from invention and ends at diffusion. This model has two versions that are market pull model and technology push model. Google has adopted this model for the diffusion of innovation among its employees. This model involves a series of steps arranged phases and the preceding stage has to be cleared to move to the next stage. This mode only works when the time required to innovate is shorter than the rate of the change in the environment. This model is not applicable to the situation of Google (Gray, 2011). This model is adamant and has a limited scope in modern organizations. This is the reason that it does not suit the situation of Google because in this model innovation is tightly controlled and in Google there is not control on innovation.
Figure 1: Flexible innovation process
Source: (Boons & Freund, 2013)
The model that is suitable on Google is flexible innovation process models. This implies that innovation is non-linear and ideas and improvements can emerge from any source. This exactly conforms to the first principle of Google that is innovation can come from any source. It also proposes that there is not stage at which ideas shall come. Like in Google an employee can propose ideas at any stage. This has also given rise to cyclic model of innovation and this cyclic model also conforms to the innovativeness of Google. It supports the rapidly changing business environment and helps a company in remaining competitive in that dynamic business environment There have been a number of prominent competitors of Google over the years but Google remained at its position without any effect from external environment (Clauss, 2016). This is because of flexible innovation process model. In this model of innovation there is flexibility of locking down the designs. It enables the company to not to miss any innovation and remain updated about the latest trends in the market. The cyclic model supports the improvements in the products as per the needs of the customers and changing environment. The examples of innovations can be seen from the regular activities of Google. Google changes its logo everyday to observe and remark special days of great personalities. The Google advertising services are something that no other company is able to beat so far (Davenport, 2013). Except for this the search engine optimization of Google is also very strong. In this manner the Google has become very competitive that it s number one search engine in the entire world. The credit of this achievement goes to its innovative practices and the models and concepts of innovation.
Innovation is vital for competitive advantage and when it comes to secure top position it is very important to adopt continuous innovation practices. There are so many companies that are working on the same line but the services of Google are outstanding and no company can compete with it. This is the benefit of brining in the innovative practices. For a company to be innovative it is also very important to motivate people to propose new ideas that can enable the company to be innovative. Google has motivated its people to a very great extent and this is why they come up with very innovative ideas. The work culture of a company shall be such that it boosts up the innovativeness and provide competitive advantage. Besides all this it has also been analysed that the competitive advantage of Google is attributed to various models and theories of innovation. Every company uses these models but a few of them uses the model that is most suitable with the goals and objectives of the company and Google is the company that has made use of these models and theories to a very great extent as per their vision.
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