International Relations - Analysis of International Policy - Assessment Answer

March 02, 2018
Author : Ashley Simons

Solution Code: 1AFHD

Question: International Relations

This assignment falls under International Relations which was successfully solved by the assignment writing experts at My Assignment Services AU under assignment help through guided sessions service.

International Relations Assignment

Assignment Task

Policy Analysis Paper

This assignment tasks students with composing a paper intended to recommend a certain policy to a targeted institution. For this assessment, you are to take the role of an analyst for Australia's diplomatic corps, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT). Your policy paper should be no more than 2,500 words and address the following issue:

Some argue that, despite the end of the Cold War, the continued presence of US forces in Asia will remain?the cornerstone of Asia-Pacific security. Most regional leaders also encourage and assist the US to maintain its commitment to the region. Others point out the losing relevance of US forces in post-Cold War Asia and consider multilateral military arrangements to be a benchmark for stability in the Asia Pacific. Should the US withdraw all troops from East Asia and what would the potential political, economic and security ramifications of this move be?

There are various formats to write a policy paper. The format required in this unit is as follows.

Report Components

  • Abstract - A one page succinct summary of all parts of the paper
  • Problem - Definition of problem to be addressed by policy
  • Policy Goal(s) - Targets and purpose of policies as they relate to the central topic
  • Policy Options - Range of policies available to address problem and reach the identified goal
  •  Considerations - Assessment and comparison of policies
  • Selected Policy - Policy(ies) that the author recommends as the most effective way to respond to the issue
  • Phases of policies - The particular order chosen policies should be implemented in and rational for this decision
  • Resources needed - The types of resources required and why (e.g. military forces, soft-power centric diplomacy, NGO mobilization etc)
  • Evaluation mechanism - Mechanisms to determine the successful implementation of recommended policies
  • Conclusion - One-paragraph summary of the problem, policy goals, and policy recommendations.

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Solution:

THE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL POLICYABSTRACT

The US military presence in Asia has been a hot topic particularly among the policy makers in the US. Some wants more forces deployed while others views it as a waste of resources that should be used elsewhere. The main problem however is that many feel that there is a shift in power that has been brought by the rapid economic growth of some countries like China. At the same time the ‘pivot’ point of the US is said to have implications to Australia which also in close proximity with the Pacific Asia region.

China and the US have been competing for a while now since China became the fastest growing economy. It has also become more assertive and engages more broadly in international relations. The main reason for the formulation and adoption of policies is to ensure that states are able to enjoy economic stability, peace etc; they are able to express their ideological beliefs without feeling threatened by another nation. The department of foreign affairs is the one that is usually mandated to oversee how a state is able to relate to other states depending on the interests at stake. An example may be when countries are able to forge alliances to help foster peace and in return, they are able to obtain material interests from other states. Although policies can be formulated, the implementation part is usually the hardest as the level of implementation varies from a country to another depending on the benefits that come with.

This is where countries are able to come together forming different organizations that will help oversee the implementation process. These organizations may include the United Nations, World Trade Organizations amongst others. East Asia Pacific policy could promote trade amongst its members which would lead to better economies, would also help in job creation of the citizens belonging to member countries.

Countries should thus be able to establish political philosophies that will help promote peace and cooperation, trade, International Organizations. When some nations are able to recognize state-state antagonism a natural thing, it means that the whole world will be filled with tension since a nation does not know when another nation will come, guns out looking for resources where they have no right to. There is the need for an international system that will be able to oversee what its member’s states are up to as far as security, economy, poaching, ethnic cleansing etc are concerned.

 PROBLEM

For a long time there has been increasing debate about the benefit presence the US military serves in Asia with some people saying that the US can and must retain their presence. There have been others, however, that questions the sustainability of the position given several factors local opposition base, asymmetrical military threats and budgetary cut. For some years, the US has been facing budgetary challenges even when pledges have been made to cut other expenditures to support the US Pacific Command (PACOM).

The military challenges to the US presence have also grown over the years. China and North Korea have developed ballistic missiles. Experts have been proposing pulling of critical US assets from the missiles range.

POLICY GOALS

Currently, one of the US policies in place is aimed at formation of military coalition mainly with china and its neighbors. It aims at creating a more transparent Chinese military since China’s growth is seen a threat to the security of the region.

The current US administration however claims that its engagement with the Asia-Pacific region is mainly built on a desire to promote a more economically prosperous region that is stable and peaceful. There are several expectations’ from the US the main one being the Asia-Pacific regions’ commitment. Countries in the Asia-Pacific regions are expected to contribute towards coming up with solutions to global and regional challenges such as proliferation of lethal weapons and climatic changes as well implementing the process.

The East Asia pacific policy: its main aim is to help promote trade and economic balance amongst its signatories. Reduced levels of unemployment as a result of increased trade between member states, promote democracy by allowing those member states with stable governments take part in the East Asia Pacific trade. It helps in furthering cooperative foreign trade.

POLICY OPTIONS

There are a number of options available. Some of them however reinforces the already existing ones. These are; deepening relationships with emerging powers like Japan and china; expansion of trade and investment; promoting democracy and human rights in the region; and engaging other regional multilateral institutions. Another policy is to accompany ‘rebalance with the establishing and upgrading the US bases in the Asia Pacific region including Australia.

CONSIDERATION

Some of these policies are deemed to be ineffective in the long run and has led to the calls by some people for the US to increase military shift in Asia in a bid to strengthen regional security alliances. While US aims at the pacific- Asia region of its commitment and ongoing leadership, the Chinese are not convinced. Of all the countries in the Asia- Pacific, china seems to be more assertive to the ‘rebalance’ policy. Regardless of internationalcriticism, the country has moved to reinforce and protect its national sovereign and interest more fiercely. In addition it may indicate a shift in its policy. These policies seem to indicate that the US should continue with its military presence in Asia. Whether it is through fostered relation or through trading, the objective remains the same.

SELECTED POLICY

China is said to be headed to becoming the world’s largest economy. Its current assertiveness must be considered in any policy that may be put into place. Its isolation in the region is a bid to protect its economy and to achieve its goal. It is natural to want to protect their own. Over the years, China has been one of the most aggressive countries in Asia to try counter US military dominance in the region.

The selected policy therefore must be seen as a win-win policy for both the US and the Asia-Pacific countries. While most of the countries within the Asia-Pacific region are comfortable with US military presence in the region, china is not. That is why the policy has to be consider China. Sharing power to manage theAsia-Pacific region seems to be the only way but it is unlikely that the US would willingly share the region’s leadership with China.  This would make every country demand its share with Australia being the most affected since it is not part of Asia but it has a treaty with the US. ‘Rebalancing is the best approach since it is somehow mutually beneficial. In addition, economic relations between the US and China makes conflict almost impossible.

PHASES OF POLICY

A problem has to exist so as to call the attention of the government. The presence of US troops in East Asia has caught the attention of several governments for example. That is why others are always calling for their withdrawal. There has to be a need that is being addressed so that a policy to be created. The insecurity and instability in the Eastern Asia were a serious problem and it caught the attention of the United States as a result of its international policy with the East Asia-Pacific states and thus why it was able to intervene. The US has been able to guarantee peace to East Asia pacific countries because of the support these countries have been given it like access to the port, military bases and others.

Once it has been decided that the existing policy needs change and decide whether it would be alright to move on to the implementation. It crucial to build public awareness and seek widespread support at this point. There should be representatives from various departments as well as experts in this particular area.

The various stakeholders in this case it Australian foreign department which is obviously concerned with this need to be invited in order to assess the needs as well as analyses the situation. This group should also help in articulating the purpose as well as the rationale of change. The complete discussion ought to also discuss the concerns problems and the possible outcome in the process. Thereafter, the various stakeholders could notify the concerned parties and request for more contributions that could benefit the policy. The feedback provided could be discussed and consider in thee full implementation of the project. Lastly new policies and procedures should be put into place as agreed.

Member states that are signatories of the policy are to ensure that policy instruments have the support they need. An example can be whether the United Nations has enough number of military personnel for a peacekeeping mission in East Asia. Are all member states giving the support that is asked of them to help ensure the policy is a success?

RESOURCES NEEDED

Since the policy focus on the keeping the military forces the Asia Pacific there are several requirements. The establishment of military bases in the Asian Pacific region including Australia should have sufficient machinery, negotiators who are non-military to help in case there is dispute with the local nonmilitary citizens as well training and medical officers. These military bases should have the correct equipment’s and sufficient social amenities. Since most of these military bases are stationed in remote locations it would be important to lobby the help of non-governmental organizations. These organizations would come in a hardy in the provision of social services without fail.

EVALUATION MECHANISMS

Evaluation examines the outcome and impact of the policy implemented. It a way of measuring performance. When doing evaluation it is important to strategically focus on the main point. It is essential to come up with thebest method and conduct reviews as the implementation continues. The person doing evaluation could use different tools. Such are; evaluation research reports, policy briefs, surveys, focus groups direct responses media tracking and assessment etc. a widely used techniques is the influential approach which focuses of collecting evidence and advice , public campaigns and advocacy and lobbying.

The organization like the United Nations through the United High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) is bestowed with the responsibility of implementing the refugees’ policy. The organization should have the required resources that are required to oversee the implementation process and making sure that policy decisions are carried out as planned. Failure by a signatory state to implement the decisions or violate the policy, there are consequences. An example can be when member states from East Asia Pacific region can become signatories of an economic policy that intends on promoting trade between its signatory states by removing trade barriers, reducing levies, allowing free entry and exits at the border by citizens belonging to states that are signatories of the policy. The extent at which these decisions will be implemented will be determined by a body that will be created by signatory states and has been given the authority and the resources to evaluate.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

It is widely known that the US has had military presence in every continent. While they may be welcome in some countries some feel that their sovereignty is being interfered with, hence the resistance. Having increased its presence in the Asia –Pacific after relenting on the middle each is something the emerging super powers like china fear. However the US must their robust military power in the region by taking advantage of partnerships and technologies if need be. The Pacific Asia has four regions which include Japan, Korea, Australia, and the South East Asia. Australia has along standing treaty with the US and has allowed to US to establish bases in the n northernterritory (Darwin) and in the western territory (Perth.). Though China has been showing aggression towards the US military presence in the region, they cannot risk not having a relationship with the US. Asia Pacific region countries have been able to make lethal war weapons. Some have been said to be preparing for world war 3. It is for this reason that the military should maintain its presence in the Asia Pacific region.

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