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Case Scenario/ Task
The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) is a 20-item self-report depression inventory with possible scores ranging from 0 to 60. Each response to an item is scored as follows:
0 = “Not At All” 1 = “A Little” 2 = “Some” 3 = “A Lot”
However, items 4, 8, 12, and 16 are phrased positively, and thus are scored in the opposite order:
3 = “Not At All” 2 = “A Little” 1 = “Some” 0 = “A Lot”
Higher CES-DC scores indicate increasing levels of depression. Weissman et al. (1980), the developers of the CES-DC, have used the cutoff score of 15 as being suggestive of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents.
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The research topic focuses on identifying the significance of positive psychology in terms of increasing the willingness of children towards education. The aim of the research includes finding out whether a positive psychological intervention has any impact on the children well-being and academic performance, to increase the engagement of children in their education as well as in preventing mental problems. Moreover, positive psychological aspects always influence the academic performance of the children. Positive attitude and optimistic thinking are the two key components of positive psychology as well as act as a catalyst increasing the depression symptoms and mental illness. Besides, positive psychology helps to obtain optimistic thoughts about every aspect of one's life, thus assessing the impact of positive psychology on children will help in future contribution for a better initiative in educational well-being field. School of Psychology from Bangor University along with LEAand Cynnal are collaboratively researching this project along with other schools to assure the students with best situations as well as success for their mental and academic background.The process includes school children within the age group of 7-13 years. The research promotes positive thinking in school children through 3 Good things, Positive gossip andGrowth Mindset interventions.
The researcher uses three types of evaluation scales for conducting the research. These are--Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), AcademicSelf-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ- A) and Scale for the students. The CES-DC is a set of20 questions, which helps to evaluate depression levels in children on a scale of 0 to 3.Here, 0 indicates an absence of depression in the respondent, while 3 indicates the maximum extent of the same. Hence, the method implied for calculating the level of depression in a child can be found out based on levels 0 to 3 multiplied by the 20 questions, thus, giving a score between 0 and 60. The 20 question would be asked to be answered “Not at all” (0),“A little” (1), “Some” (2), and “a lot” (3). The purpose of these questions is to understand the current mental condition of children, and how they feel about things around them. These questions will allow the researchers to understand that are these children feel connected to their friends and family, or they have a different mindset about their environment or things they are doing. Depression could be caused in children by any unhappy or unpleasing conditions.Children often do not express their anger and do not talk about their problems. This condition led them towards depression. Questions will also indicate the level of depression average students, and how do they react, when they are depressed. Academic Self-RegulationQuestionnaire (SRQ- A) is another kind of scale used, which has two versions- one for the students with learning disorders and the other is a standard one. The main purpose of this questionnaire is to find out that why do children do their school work. This questionnaire is slightly different from the Self-Regulation Questionnaire, which is used for adults. The response of each question is recorded on the 4 point scale as 7 point scale is not possible for children. The children are asked to circle their answers, instead of writing on an answer sheet.
The research presents the two versions of SRQ-A. In the first version, four questions are asked, related to why student do their school work. Various responses are given in each question. In the second version, questions are not presented with various responses, rather they are asked as separate questions. This version is used to understand the learning disability in children. Lastly, another scale used for evaluating the level of positive psychology in children is the general scale for students, which has been used to identify the extent to which they are unhappy in their daily lives. This third scale is used to evaluate the subjective happiness in children. This scale helps the researchers to understand that how happy children are in their lives and how do they scale their happiness. This would also help to understand that how children find themselves in comparison to their peers. The four simple questions about happiness are very significant in understanding the mental level of children. Asking the question about their happiness towards life can help to understand their perception. It will also focus on how children react when they are asked about unhappiness; do they find themselves unhappy, or they are able to judge their happiness and unhappiness?The usage of these scales enhances the understanding of positive character, positive emotions, factors and process that help to attain them. Positive psychology encourages positive thinking resulting in both physical and mental strength. Finally, by analyzing the data, conclusion and recommendations are deduced that help to increase the involvement of children in studying as well as reducing the chances of the resilience of children towards their studies. This can help the parents to decrease the depression level, increase the classroom participation, shows a relationship between positive psychology and academic performance amongst their children. The findings of the research might help in future educational betterment.
Chapter 01: Introduction
Brain malleability is the greatest in the first 10 years of child’s life and these formative years lies down the foundation for the rest of the years of a child’s life. Positive patterns created in human brain in these formative years can shape the rest of the years positively, thus, positive psychological interventions are used to train the brain from the very beginning of child’s life. More and more people are shifting towards positive psychology today from traditional psychological approaches because positive psychology is solution oriented instead of fixating on problems. Due to this positive outlook and proactive approach to life issues, schooling systems these days are also taking help from positive psychologists and incorporating positive interventions in curriculum and systems to ensure positive mental health for their students. The primary aim of this project is to help children flourish whilst at school and lead more fulfilling lives when they grow up. (Wilson, 2006)
Positive psychology is a broad term that encompasses the study of positive emotions, positive character traits and enabling institutions. Positive psychology is concerned with virtues and strengths that help individuals endure and flourish. Happiness and optimism, two of the main components of positive psychology, can act as buffers against mental illness. Happy people are also healthier, more successful, and more socially engaged. One way positive psychology encourages people to increase well-being and build strengths is through positive thinking. Positive thinking shifts attention to optimistic thoughts and emotions about oneself and life events. (Dardashti, 2008)
This study, therefore aims to promote more positive thinking and increase well-being in school children through the “Three Good Things”, “Positive Gossip” and “Growth Mindset” interventions. The “3 good things” intervention involves writing down three things that went well that day and reflecting on why they went well. The “Positive Gossip” intervention involves spreading messages of goodwill, and kindness about other students in the class. Finally, the Growth Mindset intervention involves teaching pupils to implement a Growth Mindset. This mindset is one that is adaptable to challenges and teaches children to be able to strategize and use tools resourcefully to solve problems. The intended outcomes of the study are to increase overall happiness and wellbeing, decrease depressive symptoms, increase resilience and classroom engagement and demonstrate a relationship between well-being and academic performance. (Chafouleas, 2004)
The study is an explanatory (causal research) which aims to explore the relationship between positive psychological interventions and their effects on children’s academic gains. Positive psychology and behavioral interventions are adopted to change an individual’s frame of reference to a positive one and inculcate positive habits and traits in a person. More and more parents are opting for positive psychological approaches for their kids not only as a form of therapy but also as personality boosters which transforms kids into goal oriented and optimistic individuals.
A number of researches have asserted that by delivering positive interventions across a sample of population, there can a positive shift in the mental health of the population and well-being of individuals can be increased. Due to the application of such positive psychological interventions, individuals become stronger, more resilient, empowered and are less like to become victims of their situations and become depressed. But no specific study has been conducted to see if it actually results in concrete academic gains for students inside and outside the classrooms and how the interventions efficiency can have an effect on children’s’ over all attitude towards their education. Thus, the results of this research will be very beneficial to improve schooling system’s efficiency and boost child growth.
Positive psychological interventions should be implemented with kids from the very beginning so that their brains are rewired positively and they use the acquired positive mindset and skillset for educational, career and life gains. However, no current research exists to find a direct correlation between students’ academic gains and positive psychological interventions and even though positive interventions are sometimes used in school systems, their direct effects are seldom observed and analyzed. By investing time and energy to explore and analyze this problem and investing in research with children, the long-term positive effects of resilience and other positive traits can be seeded and nurtured and implemented in school systems for long term, system wide educational gains. (Boniwell, Ilona, Ryan, Lucy, 2012)
The aim of this project is to find out if there is a correlation between implementation of positive psychological interventions and increase in academic gains for students and if positive mental health impacts educational attainment and attitudes of kids.These interventions encourage children to ‘find the positives’ in every situation and to think in an adaptive nature. The primary aim of research is to promote well-being, resilience and the prevention of mental-ill health, in children aged 11-18. This will be done by analyzing students’ responses on pre and post questionnaires, while 3 positive psychological interventions will be implemented in their classrooms by teachers. The objectives of this research are:
This research is a cross sectional study of causal nature. This research is a purely experimental research where the tests are conducted before and after the interventions and the tests are then analyzed to see if they yield any result or relationship. For the purpose of this research, the researcher uses 3 Good things, Positive Gossip and Growth Mindset intervention to see how students view the role of positivity in their classrooms and their lives, what their perceptions and current views are on the subject and take three pre and post intervention questionnaires.
H0: There is a positive relationship between positive mental health and educational attainment in children.
H1: Educational resilience can be built by using positive psychology interventions.
Positive psychological interventions present a more sustainable and empowering approach to equip individuals, especially children, with the psychological tools and strategies to be better able to face life’s challenges, make wiser and responsible decisions and have a positive outlook on life despite the challenges life poses. This can prevent chances of occurrence of mental health issues, anxiety and depression when they grow up. These techniques once adopted as part of the system, will not only result in healthier and mentally and emotionally stable adults in the system, but can also be replicated in different organizational and industrial structures to inculcate healthy and positive human resources, which are truly valuable, thus increasing overall productivity of the society.
This study is being conducted with school going children belong to the age group of 7-11 and the results will be applied to improve schooling systems for 7018 year old students. The teachers in school will be conducting three positive psychology interventions with the students and deliver a positive lesson plan, the students’ responses and attitudes will be observed through pre and post activities questionnaires. This research is being done with 850 students and the researchphilosophy used in this research is pragmatic because it is using qualitative interventions and studying correlations in quantifiable way. It is also using a limited sample size, instead of a universal and large sample size. Moreover, it is using a combination of methods to find answer to the research question.
There is a relationship between well-being and educational attainment and we hope that research may inform this relationship. On the one hand it is important to help children develop resilience and wellbeing, but on the other hand if these effects also produce better educational attainment and learning then it is a win-win for children and schools. We are trying to find out which intervention, if any, is most effective to promote well-being, resilience and the prevention of mental-ill health. Findings of this research could contribute to future educational well-being initiatives.
Three positive psychological interventions, designed after perusing through a lot of literature will be applied with students in their classroom environment. Before and after these interventions, the students will take three questionnaires, i.e. Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ- A) and a general Likert scale for the students. The reason that quantitative methods such as questionnaires are used with the students are because it is less time consuming and if done properly, as is the purpose is in this research, they give valid results. In this research, students’ responses on the survey will be converted into numerical data on SPSS and analyzed to yield results and see if a causal relationship exists between positive psychological interventions and high academic results in students.We are trying to find out which intervention, if any, is most effective to promote well-being, resilience and the prevention of mental-ill health in children and can be implemented in school systems.
Chapter 02: Literature Review
Positive psychology is the study of wellbeing and how to reach that optimum level of wellbeing. Positive psychology is focused on building up people struggling with mental illnesses or learning difficulties and helping people be their best selves by working on themselves constructively. Positive psychology can be a game changer for children if implemented properly as it will enable them to not only make sense of their world more purposefully and positively, but also help them in shaping well-balanced personalities from the very beginning and guide them productively through their childhood and growth spurts. (Carr, 2013)
Positive psychology is also a lot different from traditional psychological approaches, and it is also viewed differently from students and parents perspective as well. Traditional psychology and therapy aims to recognize the problem in the patient and then treat it, hence it is viewed as a treatment methodology. However, positive psychology doesn’t have a ‘cure’ approach to problems but rather it aims to engulf the problem with rights and positives and fix it using those positives themselves. Thus, a positive psychological intervention not only alleviates depression without treating it as a disease, but also enhances feelings of pliability by reducing negative emotions and dwelling on them. (Seligman, Csikszentmihalyi, 2000)
Positive Psychology differs from traditional psychology in the aspect that traditional psychology aims to bring people from a negative to a stable state. However, positive psychology doesn’t only aspire to bring individuals to stable state but take them one step ahead to a positive state of mind where there is more action and chances of flourishing and succeeding are plentiful. These states of flourishing are different for each individual but positive psychology aims to create successful and positive adults instead of just letting people live with an okay state of mind. Thus, the focus is more on working hard to get what we want and focusing on positive results by inculcating positive habits. (Prilleltensky, Nelson, 2000)
Researches prove that Positive psychology can help children in reframing their view of the world and view world’s problems as challenges and chances to grow and view the universe from the ‘glass half full’ angle. The purpose of this paper is to explore the evidence which points towards the positive psychological interventions in building up educational resilience in the children. It will also explore if research actually proves that psychological interventions do help children and if the increased educational engagement can result in prevention of mental illnesses and life disturbances and if yes how that change is possible and can be cultivated for future studies. This paper also explores the literature available worldwide which aimed to explore the topic from similar or different lenses so that the basis is covered and research points, methods and analysis is done comprehensively. (Jonge, 2013)
Previously positive psychology was viewed as field which enabled people to become happy but delusional. However, a lot of research has been done on the topic, implementation and concerns of Positive psychology, and now it is deemed a very seasoned field, which doesn’t only enable its users to make decisions which enable them to be happy, but also learn happiness as a product of grit and resilience and enable them to bounce back purposefully from impediments. Thus, it prepares people for real life which is not only rosy, but combines a load of hindrances and any successful adult should know how to face and earn from setbacks decently and this is where positive psychology comes into play. (Hooper, 2012)
Positive psychology usually addresses or aims to reshape the following components of a child’s personality. It enables the child to recognize his/her strengths and use them purposefully in life to make decisions, and particularly make those decisions for future, where the strength set can be utilized well. Recognition of optimum strengths and its effective usage also enables the kids to become result oriented, hardworking and resilient and in turn a motivated go-getter. Positive psychology also aims to flourish feelings of calm and control in children so that the emotions can be in check and control all the time and conscious, positive decisions are taken. These two combined, enable the child to have a positive outlook on life and people involved in their lives, hence, gives them the ability to build and cherish healthy relationships and learn positive and constructive communication. (Cleave, 2012)
Implementation of positive psychology in classrooms from the very beginning is crucial if we want our children to grow up into well balanced, positive, growth minded adults. It doesn’t only enable the children to view things optimistically, but also help them in harnessing necessary life skills consciously and managing their feelings, behavior and thoughts determinedly as well. This positive purposefulness enables the children to learn how to make good life choices, and become determined, confident adults. (Berg, Steiner, 2003)
Positive Psychology works on the assumption that human brain can be rewired and repurposed to work positively. Thus, negative associations can be replaced by positive associations and positive patterns can be created in the mind to link up with the nervous system so that complex tasks can be performed more quickly as per those patterns. Thus, if constant input is given to the human brain, especially in the formative years of the child, underlying positive patterns can be created. Thus, a lot of work is being done to ensure that the brain patterns formed are negative and not positive. This process is called Neuroplasticity, and researchers and scientists are nowadays more interested in using it to their advantage and create positive patterns from the onset. Thus, positive pathways can be created in human brain, and if negative pathways exist, they can be renewed in formative years and this rewiring becomes harder as age progresses.
Dr. Normal Doidge's (M.D.) book, The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science states that repetitive positive thoughts and actions can overcome the negative patterns formed in the brain but it does require a lot of practice on continuous basis. Thus, just like exercise or learning new skillset, these positive patterns and thoughts need to be repeated again and again purposefully, so that new neural pathways are formed in the brain. (Covey, 2011)
In the formative years that are since birth to ages of seven, the formation of neural pathways is faster, so positive patterns are built easily in children. Thus, by training young brains from the very beginning to look at positive patterns, to find fulfilling work and work as per their strengths and seek positive emotions, we can train young children to become intrinsically motivated and have constructive and positive personalities. Moreover, longitudinal research from University of Pennsylvania also deduces that by building resilience and positive thoughts in kids from the very beginning, we can prepare our kids to create mental buffers and protect themselves from anxiety and negative thoughts so that they can flourish and accept the positives and negatives of the world with grace and grit. (O’Grady, 2013)
One thing to be wary of while pursuing this topic is that positive psychology doesn’t ask adults to take control of the kids’ lives, but instead encourages and motivates the adults to create an environment around the kids where they are able to determine their own direction and tools to reach their goals. This quote summarizes this point beautifully that “The child provides the power while the adults do the steering.” Thus, adults should not try to exert control, because if they do, kids will not only provide natural resistance but also it will create resentment in kids and resentment and resistance combined together are a deadly combination for killing positive mindset. (Proctor, Linley, 2013)
Children should be encouraged to make their own decisions and meet failures if necessary. Their minds should be reframed to view failures as learning opportunities which teach them not only valuable quantifiable lessons, but also build cherished personal values in them like grit and resilience and how these two values are so necessary in adults today. (Lopez, Synder, 2011)
Positive psychology gives a lot of practical steps to parents and children and aim to convert the two parties into positive doers. Famous psychology writers and researchers have adapted their famous works into frameworks of positive psychology for children. One such example is Stephan Covey’s adaptation of The Leader in Me Process. This process derives its main components from Mr. Covey’s work and is a school wide movement and system. It aims to develop essential 21st century skills into kids and integrate these skill building core activities in to the school curriculum and management. Also, it is not just a onetime approach, but instead it aims to inculcate these skills and habits in kids on a daily basis. (O’Grady, 2015)
The basic components that are at the core of The Leader in Me are that students are taught to be goal oriented and to take actions based on their long term action. Hence, they are taught to start everything with the end in mind. This farsightedness and action orientation is coupled with proactivity. Through teaching pro-action, students are taught they are the designers of their fate, their actions and their choices, hence, reliance on others is diminished, and independence and responsibility is given to the children. This feeling of independence and taking control is complimented by taking care of themselves and others by helping each other become best version of themselves and assisting each other positively to reach the goals. Students are encourages to adopt a growth mindset and treat failures and learning experiences positively by always prioritizing positive choices ad outcomes no matter what by synergizing their strengths on the positive outcomes. This is thus a doable and system wide learning approach, which not only helps students but also the adults involved in the children’s life. This component is important for our paper because we are interested in system wide affects that positive psychology can have on both adults and children, because it is eventually the adult’s choices in the present which will be affecting the children’s futures academically. (Bannink, 2012)
The reason the study is focusing on parents’ permission and involvement in their children’s association and experiences with positive psychology is because they are one of the major influencers on their children. Positive psychology draws its power from the relationships that the children surround themselves with; hence, parents’ role becomes really important in this regard. Moreover, this study explores the effect of positive psychology on boosting academic results attainment of the children as well through teaching of concepts like grit, resilience, mind over matter and these concepts also involve parent’s role in the long term as viewers and audience who cheers on their kids on their accomplishments. (Walton, 2015)
Mall interventions done on a daily basis can result in larger gains in children’s academic as students’ minds are trained to direct attention to positive thoughts and actions.Positive interventions and directed actions are regarded highly in the field of not only social psychology but also clinical psychology as well. For example, Patients suffering from depression are often advised to keep gratitude journals where they record their daily thoughts and express gratitude daily for things they are most thankful for in their lives. (Heckman, 2006)Thus, the aim of positive psychologyfor children is to make use of these positive interventions and record their effect on students’ academic performance and if it results in educational resilience.
Theoretically speaking, there is a high correlation between values like grit, resilience and academic performance because it allows the child to use his strengths with focus and regularity, with a positive and optimistic outlook, which usually results in positive outcomes and academic gains which is referred to as flourishing in literary terms. (Ceci, Papierno, 2005) This approach is demonstrated in the image below:
Life Stress and Health: A Review of Conceptual Issues and Recent Findings report that seemingly small interventions can have large payoffs for students. These interventions not only break the redundancy of a normal school day, but also help in inculcating positive values in kids and the value system combined with the rigorous academic system results in long lasting positive learnings for the kids. These interventions also help the teacher to create stronger bonds with the students and as a result students learn to bond strongly with each other. This support system is valuable or students because it given them an authentic experience of positive and nourishing relationships. These relationships combined with value based teaching approach, results in reduced academic gaps, and higher interest in education and its benefits by the students. As a result of this, the students feel that they have a place to belong, they are valued and heard and their educational experience is worthwhile. (Marten, Greenberg, Schimel, 2006) As a result they are more interested in the educational experience and take ownership of their actions and try harder to get better at what they are good at and focus on long-term goals and strive hard to achieve them. Thus, seemingly small positive interventions do have a lasting impact on the children’s experience in school. (Garcia, Cohen, 2005)
Homework and classroom interventions play a big part in the development of the children’s attitudes and consequent behavior. Classroom interventions based on positive psychology are used to reinforce daily habits, and related homework acts as a trigger to ensure that the habits and character traits are formed which can last. Berg and Steiner (2003) suggests that positive homework can be of two kinds i.e. “do-more-of-what-works” tasks and “do-something-different” tasks”. Since the aim is to lock down positive traits using child’s strengths, thus “do-more-of-what-works” is given on a daily basis and child is expected to build an expertise in this by practicing on a daily basis so that grit is built. Homework comprising of “do-something-different” tasks is given so that child can switch it up and experience different types of work and see if they suit him or not, but it is not given regularly. Moreover, homework is rooted in positive psychology are not just given for the sake of it, but they are rooted in children’s goal and vision for themselves so that they tale interest in doing it and actually benefit from it. (Jussim, Harber, 2005)
Positive Education has been gaining a lot of momentum in the world these days as Positive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has been replacing traditional therapy methods worldwide. The reason Positive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is now being used more and more is because it provides its users an internal locus of control and is a strength based program. Thus, its users do not feel like that they are being treated but instead feel powerful enough to take actions about their circumstances and be influential enough to change them using their strengths. Thus a CBT therapist only helps the person identify his/her strengths and the rest of the work is done by the person him/herself. Together they formulate strategies which will help them to overcome their problems. These strategies are often long-term and usually focus on skill building. Mostly these strategies focus on inculcating skills and values like resilience, vision and goal setting, courage and positivity. (Walton, Cohen, 2007)
Most of the children become part of the CBT because their elders want them to partake in positive therapy so that dysfunctional behavior is minimized. This therapy is also sought to reduce developmental conflicts and help the individual in taking control of his/her developmental needs. The reason optimism is a major focus of CBT is because research had proved that children who are optimistic are often more successful at school, they partake in more activities in school, are more social and have less temperament issues. Moreover, an optimistic child is less likely to take part in drugs and other adverse activities, because children take part in adverse activities so that they feel in control. Since optimism gives them a positive outlook on their activities, they don’t feel the need to indulge in harmful activities and instead use their locus of control for positive activities which contributes to their larger goal for themselves. (McCord, 1978)
CBT also aims to create feelings of hope in children and uses their support system to inculcate these feelings in them. As a result of optimistic and hopeful outlook on life, these children are less likely to become depressed and have less developmental issues. (Albee, 1986) Support system is also very important in CBT and the initial meetups also focus on the child using the support system around them effective so that a proper self-assistance structure is created and the strategies adopted have a long lasting impact on the child and the people around him/her. Support System is also used in CBT to shift the focus from problems to solutions and aims to limit problem talk with both the child as well as the parents. Thus, their focus is shifted from problem talk to strengths and solutions talk. So the schooling system or household which uses CBT techniques, focus majorly on solutions, proactive approach to life and living up to the capacities instead of dwelling on negative approach to life. Thus, CBT system results in stronger individuals. (Yeager, Walton, 2011)
An extensive study was conducted by Edith Grotberg as part of International Resilience Project and Penn Resilience Project and it was found out that children who were resilient had more capacity to overcome trauma and difficulties in life and thus are much more likely to bounce back on the usual track once life throws hurdles at them. (Garbarino, 2011) Thus, resilient children are much more likely to be successful because they have a problem solving approach towards life and they take it upon themselves to build upon their skills as they deem necessary in different cycles of life. Owing to these developments on resilience, schools are now adopting CBT and resilience based study approaches and systems so that their students are less likely to be depressed and they are control over their behaviors. These schooling systems focus more on increasing assertiveness, giving more case studies so that students become better at decision making, and framing emotions and situations positively so that solutions can be found. (Lewin, 1952)
Chapter 03: Methodology
This research is a purely experimental research where the tests are conducted before and after the interventions and the tests are then analyzed to see if they yield any result or relationship. For the purpose of this research, the researcher uses 3 Good things, Positive Gossip and Growth Mindset intervention to see how students view the role of positivity in their classrooms and their lives, what their perceptions and current views are on the subject and take three pre and post intervention questionnaires.
Babbie and Mouton (2006:74) discuss a research design as a master plan or pattern of how the researcher desires to conduct the research that indicates a connection between the philosophical presumptions to particular methods. For Bless, Higson-Smith and Kagee (2006:71), the research design is a way used to test hypotheses as it details what strategies and tools will be practiced during the enquiry for the purpose of properly answer the research questions or check a specific hypothesis under given circumstances. According to research question, relevant research design is chosen so that collected data accurately answers the required query. The research question of this research is to investigate the positive psychology interventions and children’s academic performance and overall wellbeing with main focus on age group of 7-11 children. Correlation research design was used in this study .Although quantitative approaches have been used to gather responses, the size of sample selected on the basis of the population size, and the questionnaire has been used as instrument via descriptive survey.
The researchphilosophy used in this research is pragmatic because it is using qualitative interventions and studying correlations in quantifiable way. It is also using a limited sample size, instead of a universal and large sample size. Moreover, it is using a combination of methods to find answer to the research question.
Research approaches can be divided into three types: qualitative, quantitative and mixed research and selection can be made from these categories (Kumar, 1999). The reason quantitative methods such as questionnaires are used with the students are because it is less time consuming and if done properly, as is the purpose is in this research, they give valid results. This research is conducted on quantitative based methods which deal with explaining some sort of phenomena of interest statistically and then collecting numerical facts for analysis (Muijs 2004, 1)
Quantitative research is a deductive approach i.e. formulation of hypotheses, introducing variables accordingly which could assess the objectives and such evaluation then used for investigation. Then collected response data is used for testing of formulated hypotheses which really explain the reality. Finally the results of investigation are compared with original hypotheses to modify or accept the theory from which original hypotheses was obtained. In this research cross-sectional strategy is used for this particular research design enclosed with research problem. As it elaborates the criteria for ascertaining authentication, normality and effectiveness of the research.
The ways these interventions and questionnaires will be deployed with the children are:
McMillan and Schumacher (2006:119) describe a population as a group of persons, objects or events that have some common features that comply with certain criteria and to which the researcher expect to generalize the results of the research. The population of this research is all the students who can benefit from positive psychology. For practical purposes, a population of 7-11 & adults children is chosen to respond to SRQ- LD & SRQ standardize version scale. As per required prerequisite of survey non-random sampling was used. This research used convenience sampling techniques. It’s a type of non-probability sampling in which response is collected from students of population that will be conveniently available. The sample of 188 was used. The response rate from SRQ standardize version is 101 and SRQ LD version is 87.
In this research primary data is used to collect facts or opinion of respondent. A descriptive and exploratory survey was conducted by personal interview. Babbie (2008:278) states that structured questionnaires are preferable as it is most directly linked to survey research and they are easy to compute and compile. A structured Likert scale Questionnaire (SRQ-Standard version & SRQ LD version) was used as research tool including 32 & 17 statements covering 4 variables. Before conducting the interventions in the classrooms with the students, permissions are taken from the parents, consent forms are signed by the parents, teachers and students and teachers are taken on board regarding what the roles and expectation will be from them throughout the research period, so that reliable and valid data is collected through the pre and post intervention questionnaires and students fill in the questionnaires without any fear or bias. Confidentiality of the opinion and information regarding the output was assured to parents & students. Around 188 pre and post questionnaires will be analyzed through the SPSS.
The statistical tool used to analyze the data will be Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS), version 19.06.2016. This software will be used to do predictive and inductive analysis on the data points gathered from the students.
Bickman and Rog (2009:77) argued that sampling refers to the action of choosing a representative of a research population for data collection. As per required prerequisite of survey non-random sampling was used. This method is employed to the research because of its simplicity as well as ease of this study. Research tool contains three different scales is done in the research to ensure that students do not get bored and hence falsify their responses in the questionnaires. Moreover, these three scales are gathering and evaluating data regarding same topic, thus, it gives more concrete and holistic picture about their perceptions and attitude. The usage of these scales enhances the understanding of positive character, positive emotions, factors and process that help to attain them. The formative and summative questionnaires use the following evaluation scales in this research:
|(CES-DC)||(SRQ- A)||General Likert scale|
|The CES-DC is a set of 20 questions, which helps to evaluate depression levels in children within a scale of 0 to 3 (0 minimum, 3 maximum)||Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ- A) has two versions- one for the students with learning disorders and the other is a standard one. The main purpose of this questionnaire is to find out that why do children do their school work.||This third scale is used to evaluate the subjective happiness in children. This scale is a basic Likert scale and this scale helps the researchers to understand that how happy children are in their lives and how do they scale their happiness.|
|The 20 question would be asked to be answered in “Not at all” (0), “A little” (1), “Some” (2), and “a lot” (3).||The response of each question is recorded on the 4 point scale as 7 point scale is not possible for children. The children are asked to circle their answers, instead of writing on an answer sheet.||This would also help to understand that how children find themselves in comparison to their peers.|
|The purpose of these questions is to understand
|This research presents the two versions of SRQ-A. In the first version four questions are asked, related to why student do their school work. Various responses are given in each question.||The four simple questions about happiness are very significant in understanding the mental level of children|
|The method implied for calculating the level of depression in a child can be found out based on levels 0 to 3 multiplied by the 20 questions, thus, giving a score between 0 and 60||In the second version, questions are not presented with various responses, rather they are asked as separate questions. This version is used to understand the learning disability in children.||It also focuses on how children react when they are asked about unhappiness; do they find themselves unhappy, or they are able to judge their happiness and unhappiness?|
Chapter 04: Analysis and Discussion
In data analysis both the collection of data and data collection set is covered. On the data set the analysis detail will regulated with the help of suitable test. By using statistical software results are assembled and by getting interpretation from these results will help we form finding final solution of the problem. Participant’s details are kept secret. The designed hypothesis will also be explained in this chapter so that we can identify either the hypothesis is accepted or rejected.
4.1 Reliability analysis
For the measure of inside consistency reliability, the Cronbach's alpha is for the most part utilized. The estimation of coefficients ranges from 0 to 1. On the off chance that the value is closer to 1 the items reliability is greater. Therefore, now and then lower values (threshold) likewise accepted and it is used in literature.
Reliability analysis is applied using SPSS 16.0, so as to check the reliability of the variables.
|Subjective Happiness (SH)||0.56|
|Academic Self-Regulation (SD version)||0.74|
|Academic Self-Regulation (LD version)||0.75|
|Depression Children (CES-DC)||0.88|
This table presents the central location (average mean value) and standard deviation (central of dispersion).Standard deviation shows the number of dispersion from central point. The collected data is based upon the 3 Good things, Positive Gossip and Growth Mindset intervention to see how students view the role of positivity in their classrooms and their lives, what their perceptions and current views are on the subject and take three pre and post intervention questionnaires.
The mean value for subjective happiness is 18.76, for Depression Children (CES-DC) the value of mean is 18.64, for Academic Self-Regulation (SD version) the value is 18.30 , for Academic Self-Regulation (LD version) 81.58 is the mean value with standard deviation of subjective happiness is 3.07, Depression Children (CES-DC) is 5.33, for Academic Self-Regulation (SD version) is 1.80, and Academic Self-Regulation (LD version) is 62.33.
|*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).|
This table shows that all the variables of study are no correlated. The dependent and independent values are explained in this table. The ?threshold value is taken as 0.05, which is the p value observed against the variable values. If the value of P is less than ? value then the hypothesis which is taken as null is rejected and we accept the hypothesis which is alternative. As well as on the other hand the value of P is greater than ? value then the hypothesis which is taken as Null is accepted and we reject the hypothesis which is alternative. The Correlation value of CES-DC (Children depression) and SH (Subjective Happiness) is .106 which shows that there is insignificant relationship between these variables.CESDC have a positive significant relationship with subjective happiness.
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
This table shows that all the variables of study are not correlated. The dependent and independent values are explained in this table. The ?threshold value is taken as 0.01, which is the p value observed against the variable values. If the value of P is less than ? value then the hypothesis which is taken as Null is rejected and we accept the hypothesis which is alternative. As well as on the other hand the value of P is greater than ? value then the hypothesis which is taken as Null is accepted and we reject the hypothesis which is alternative. Correlation value of SD VERSION and LD VERSION is -.110 which shows that there is [negative insignificant relationship between SD VERSION and LD VERSION. Correlation value of SD VERSION (1) and LD VERSION is -.001 which shows that there is negativeinsignificant relationship between SD VERSION and LD VERSION.
|H1: There is a significant impact of Depression Children (CES-DC) on the Subjective Happiness (SH)||0.106
|H2: There is no significant relationship between SD VERSION and LD VERSION.||0.110
|H3: There is no significant relationship between SD VERSION and LD VERSION.||0.01
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate||Change Statistics|
|R Square Change||F Change||df1||df2||Sig. F Change|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), CESDC|
The model summary of the data set is shown in this table. The following figures are interpreted like the value of R, R square, adjusted R square and the Std. Error of the estimation. R tells the dependence of dependent variable on independent variable, other things remaining constant. So the R values explained in this table are 0.106 that explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variable is 10.6%. It means the coloration existence is 10.6%. This means that there is coloration between these two variables but with minority. So there is a correlation between Depression Children and the Subjective Happiness (SH).
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate||Change Statistics|
|R Square Change||F Change||df1||df2||Sig. F Change|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), SRQSD, SRQSD_1|
The model summary of the data set is shown in this table. The following figures are interpreted like the value of R, R square, adjusted R square and the Std. Error of the estimation. R is explaining the value of a relationship between the two variables like dependent and independent variable. So the R values explained in this table are 0.044 that explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variable is 44%. This means that there is coloration between these two variables. So there is a correlation SD VERSION and LD VERSION.
The above ANOVA table outlines the general model's "Goodness of Fit". In the table, all out information is sorted into two divisions. One is regression, and the other is leftover. Regression comprises of the piece of information which is clarified by regression while residual shows to the unexplained part. In the event that regression is more prominent than lingering than the information set is thought to be a solid match. The estimations of Regression and Residual in the table are 9.145 and 80.1992 separately. These qualities demonstrate that Regression is more noteworthy than Residual, which implies that the model is a solid match as a more critical bit of the model is clarified by regression while the part unexplained is less. Thusly, it can be deciphered that general model is a good fit.
In F-test, if the estimation of F saw from the table is more noteworthy than F basic worth which is seen from the general table for F values, then it is translated that general model fit is good. In the same setting, the centrality esteem, otherwise called p-worth, is additionally seen to test decency of fit. On the off chance that the p-esteem saw from the table is discovered not exactly the ?, which is taken 0.01 in this examination, the again the elucidation determines states that general model is good fit. Thusly by watching the F values, we either found the decency of fit or we discovered our model, not a good fit.
The watched estimation of F is 4.247 in the above table while the basic estimation of F is .165 Then again, the p-esteem watched is 0.000 and ? is 0.05. This demonstrates the estimation of watched is more noteworthy than F basic worth and p-quality is less than ?. Consequently, it is translated that the general model is a good fit.
|Model||Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), SRQSD, SRQSD_1|
|b. Dependent Variable: SRQLD|
The above ANOVA table outlines the general model's "Goodness of Fit". In the table, all out information is sorted into two divisions. One is regression, and the other is leftover. Regression comprises of the piece of information which is clarified by regression while residual shows to the unexplained part. In the event that regression is more prominent than lingering than the information set is thought to be a solid match. The estimations of Regression and Residual in the table are 0.87 and .000 separately. These qualities demonstrate that Regression is more noteworthy than Residual, which implies that the model is a solid match as a more critical bit of the model is clarified by regression while the part unexplained is less. Thusly, it can be deciphered that general model is a solid match.
In F-test, if the estimation of F saw from the table is more noteworthy than F basic worth which is seen from the general table for F values, then it is translated that general model fit is good. In the same setting, the centrality esteem, otherwise called p-worth, is additionally seen to test decency of fit. On the off chance that the p-esteem saw from the table is discovered not exactly the?, which is taken 0.01 in this examination, the again the elucidation determines states that general model is good fit. Thusly by watching the F values, we either found the decency of fit or we discovered our model, not a good fit.
The watched estimation of F is 12.78 in the above table while the basic estimation of F is 0.200. Then again, the p-esteem watched is 0.000 and ? is 0.05. This demonstrates the estimation of Fwatched is more noteworthy than F basic worth and p-quality is less than?. Consequently, it is translated that the general model is a good fit.
The above demonstrates the estimations of ? and ?of separate free variables. These qualities are utilized to tackle the regression condition that shows the unit of variety created by dependent variable because of independent variables.
CESDC = + ?SH + i
When increase in one unit ofsubjective happiness is created because of 0.621 unit of increases in Depression Children (CES-DC)
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||t||Sig.|
|a. Dependent Variable: SRQLD|
The above demonstrates the estimations of ? and ?of separate free variables. These qualities are utilized to tackle the regression condition that shows the unit of variety created by dependent variable because of independent variables.
SRQLD = + ? SRSD1 +?SRSD +i
SRQLD=1.502-2.741(SRQSD1) – 0.038 (SRQSD)
When increase in one unit ofAcademic Self-Regulation (SD version)is created because of 0.575 units of increases in Academic Self-Regulation (LD version)
In t-test, if the estimation of t value from the table is more prominent than t basic quality which is seen from the general table for t-values, then the invalid speculation gets catapulted, and interchange theory gets acknowledged. In the same connection, the importance esteem, otherwise called p-worth, is likewise seen to test the theory. In the event that the p-esteem value from the table is discovered not exactly the ?, which is taken 0.01 in this exploration, the again invalid speculation gets shot out, and interchange theory gets acknowledged. Along these lines by watching the t values, we either acknowledge the invalid theory which dependably demonstrates that there is no effect on study variables or we acknowledge the other speculation which speaks to the relationship amongst independent and dependent value.
T esteem watched for Production volume is 4.938, and the basic quality for t is 6.920. This demonstrates the p-esteem watched is more prominent than the basic worth. Then again, the p-esteem (0.000) for Production volume is not exactly the ? (0.01). Along these lines, the H1 gets acknowledged which appears there is a significant effect impact of Depression Children (CES-DC) on the Subjective Happiness (SH).
T esteem watched for Production volume is 3.148, and the basic quality for t is 0.477. This demonstrates the p-esteem watched is more prominent than the basic worth. Then again, the p-esteem (0.000) for Production volume is not exactly the ? (0.01). Along these lines, the H1 gets acknowledged which appears there is a significant effect impact of SD VERSION on LD VERSION.
|H0: There is a significant impact of Depression Children (CES-DC) on the Subjective Happiness (SH).
H1: There is a no significant impact of Depression Children (CES-DC) on the Subjective Happiness (SH).
(0.000 < 0.01)
|H0: There is a significant relationship between SD VERSION and LD VERSION.
H2: There is no significant relationship between SD VERSION and LD VERSION.
(0.056 > 0.01)
An error in normality exists when mistakes from numerous regression are regularly disseminated. To check typicality of errors, there are two methodologies: Histogram of Residuals and Normal Profitability Approach. I have utilized both ways to deal with check the errors of Normality. In the primary approach, the histogram ought to be ringer formed. In the figure over, the state of the histogram is ringer formed which demonstrates typicality of missteps. In this manner, the third supposition is likewise fulfilled.
Normal Probability Plot
In the figure over, the regression line is explain by the straight line while the spots explain to the perceptions in the information set. In this presumption, the separation between the specks and regression line ought to be minimum. The dabs lie nearer to the regression line that demonstrates that the third suspicion is fulfilled.
The Heteroskadicity exists when errors have non-steady change. At the point when information demonstrates a scattered plot with every one of the qualities scattered then there is no Heteroskadicity in the information. In the figure over, the qualities are scattered. Along these lines, it can be translated that there is no Heteroskadicity in the information set. Along these lines the fourth and last supposition of ordinary least square is additionally fulfilled.
Chapter 05: Conclusion and Recommendation
This section manages the discourse on general exploration by tossing light on the outcomes thoroughly. The outcomes found in this exploration are contrasted with past inquires about with reinforce the possibility of this examination. On the premise of nitty gritty dialog, conclusions are determined which correctly covers the discoveries of the examination and give general derivation. Further, this area gives suggestions to change of the farming part all in all furthermore expresses the potential impediments that were significant in this exploration
In chapter 4 the various tests are applied to variables to check that either the generated hypothesis are accepted or rejected. Now after applying the test on subjective happiness andDepression Children the results are significance and there is a relationship between these two variables. Because when the people are happy then they can able form more success and can easily engaged in themselves in the society. And when it comes to children education career and life, positive skills and mind set both play an important role. Academic Self-Regulation (SD version) and Academic Self-Regulation (LD version) both are used in research. Form these two variables we are able to conduct a per and post research. By the passage of time with the help of research on different students and exploration the researcher analyze that positive psychological interventions and academic gains must be used in different school systems. So that can be helpful for the teachers to know about the problems of the students due to which they move to depression. When the human brain start making a positive patterns then they can spend their rest of life in a positive direction, and for kids’ positive thinking make them confident and creative.
Teachers also played an important role in this study as they were trained and prepared to teach lessons to kids who can help the kids to answer according to questionnaire requirements. Besides this, the parents are too important for this study as they must be positive with their kids not only in studies but with their personality that can be help full for their kids to convert them intoacreative thinker and optimistic.
Qualitative methods such as questionnaire used for this study is to save the time and find the results as soon as possible, by using before and after questionnaire the children were prepared to answer three questionnaires, these are subjective happiness, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ- A) and a general Likert scale for the students. And when the data collection is done then the results were analyzed on SPSS. This study was explanatory study, and the aim is to find the relationship between the variables, subjective happiness and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC),Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ- SD) and Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ- SL).
The results from this study will help the school going students, their parents and teachers. The main purpose of this study to create positive thinking that can help them to be move innovative in their life.
After conducted the descriptive analysis the main is to check that is there any kind of relation between the variables or not. We had dividend our variables in to two parts. The first is to check the relationship between subjective happiness and Depression Children. After running the correlation analysis the results are significant and there is a relationship between their two variables. On the basis of this result our first hypothesis is accepted i.ethere is a positive relationship between positive mental health and educational attainment in children.On the other hand when the correlation analysis was tested on the rest of two variables Academic Self-Regulation (SD version) and Academic Self-Regulation (LD version), the results are not significant, which means Educational resilience can be built by using positive psychology interventions.
This study is based onqualitative interventions it is also knows a time based study. Time based study is a process in which the researcher collects a sample from a large number of populations over a given period of time. As this sample of this study was children, and the data is collected from with a help of questionnaires pre and post. But form children this technique of data collection is not appropriate, because the ages of children in this study are not able to answer according to their desire, they just observed the current scenario and answer according to that. So convenience sampling technique is more good for the kids of ages from 7 to 12. No current research exists to find a direct correlation between students’ academic gains and positive psychological interventions and even though positive interventions are sometimes used in school systems, their direct effects are seldom observed and analyzed. So it is complicated to compare the results from the past research, due to less research work on the variables which were used in this study.
The various limitations had found in this study. Starting from a methodological point of view, correlation between students’ academic gains and positive psychological interventions had not be found yet in these days research, so it’s not possible to find a appropriate results, there must be some flaws while conducting this research. This study was conducted with children who were school going and having age group from 7 to 12. These students were from grade 2 to grade 7th. Specific particular task might restrain the guesswork of results. The results may be replicated in reciprocal where the situation is real and settings were hierarchical.
This study was based on pre and post questionnaires, which is a limitation so we can say that this study is a snapshot of a longitudinal data. The questionnaires were distributed by the teachers in schools. The teachers were conducted three positive psychology interventions with the students and deliver a positive lesson plan, the students’ responses and point of view were noticed by pre and post activities questionnaires. In this research 600 questionnaires were done by the students. Due to limited sample size and shortage of time the results are not according to aims and objectives but it can be taken as appropriate according to the scenario.
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