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As discussed in class, the traditional contract procurement is not used as much in the current market. Provide a list of 3 pros and 3 cons for its use. Additionally, state which owner groups are best suited to this style of contract.
Taking into consideration thermal movement, using the formula, movement = coefficient of expansion (x10-6) X length X temperature change, determine how much movement will occur between 2 sections of 10m concrete for:-20Celcius & + 40 Celsius
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Discuss the importance of a proper movement joint between the concrete and the effects on durability and use (3 items explained)
Describe the difference between mild steel and stainless steel, taking into account types. If you were to have the following conditions, which element would be recommended and why?
With steel provide 3 types of protection that can be used and the benefits of each.
Within the different phases of a project, you have multiple consultants interacting. Briefly describe the following phases:
Scheme Design, Detailed Design, Contract Documentation, Construction Within the above, explain the role of commissioning agent and how it is related to functional use.
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Traditional contract procurement have been used from ancient period. Other methods of procurement are design and build, management contracting and construction management contract process for project procurement process. The main advantage of traditional contracting methods are design flexibility, high quality due to pre-designing process, implementation of design controls. It is the most familiar method of procurement. Traditional contracting has been tried and tested in the every industry. Also, it is easy to implement variations in the contract. There is a high chance for competitive equity since every tendering contractors bid in the same basis. Client has high level of functionality to implement design changes in the contract. (NSW, 2005)
The major drawbacks of this form of contractual process are high cost, it requires detailed timing for pre-tendering process. There is a high chance of making incomplete drawings which additionally raises project risks due to delays, costs associated with delays and claims of negligence for wrong work submission. As indicated above, it is a very time consuming process. Tender documents always form incomplete design which might lead to the disputes. It may affect the project duration since the steps are sequential in manner. No input project execution methods are planned by contractor during initial stages of the project. Traditional procurement methods are not being currently used in various industries due to the risks and disadvantages. This type of procurement method absolutely suits for the construction and engineering projects. This system is predominately used by construction firms for accomplishment of building and residential development projects. (RICS, 1996)
Movement - coefficient of expansion (x10-6) X length X temperature change
Coefficient of expansion of Ordinary Portland Cement concrete structure – 10 microstrains per C
Temperature change = 40 degree C – 20 degree C
Temperature change = 20 degree C
Movement – 10(4) * 20m * 20 Celsius
Movement between two concrete structure with 10m = 40 x 20 x 20 = 16000
The main purpose of joints is to implement surface rigidity. Construction joint is usually joint between slabs where concrete is placed. Solid joints are utilized to repay when concrete grows or psychologists with changes in temperature. Solid joints are typically used to forestall splits when the solid psychologists by making framing, tooling, sawing and putting joint formers. The pre-arranged splits will give a superior complete solid item and will be shaped in particular areas where those breaks could be observed. Some of the time as a result of the material and width or traverse of the solid joints are required to enhance the execution of the material and enable the materials to extend/contract or move without harming different structures. (Hwang et al, 2017)
Solid Compression Joints
Proposed to make a debilitated zone in the solid and direct where splits will happen, typically in a straight line. Compression joints ought to be put to create boards that are as square as could be expected under the circumstances and never surpass a length to width proportion of 1 ½ to 1. Joints are regularly separated at separations equivalent to 24 to 30 times the chunk thickness.
Joint separating that is more noteworthy than 15 feet requires the utilization of load exchange gadgets. Compression joints might be tooled into the solid surface at the season of position. Joints may likewise be sawed into the solidified solid surface. Understand that the more extended sawing is deferred the higher the potential for breaks to set up themselves before sawing is finished. (Hwang et al, 2017)
Solid Extension Joints
Solid extension joints are utilized to isolate pieces and cement from different parts of the structure. Extension joints permit free development between abutting auxiliary individuals limiting breaking when such developments are controlled. This takes into consideration warm extension and withdrawal without initiating worry into the framework.
The essential distinction between the two is the way that stainless steel is a chromium based steel amalgam, though gentle steel is a carbon based steel composite. Mild Steel is otherwise called carbon steel because of the way that it contains between 0.05– 0.25% carbon. Stainless Steel, then again, contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass. Stainless Steel versus Mild Steel: Stainless Steel and Gentle Steel are both generally utilized items. Both are distinctive compounds of steel, which in itself is a combination of iron and different components, essentially carbon. Steel is a standout amongst the most well-known materials on the planet, in the greater part of its varieties. The steel business delivers more than 1.3 billion tons of steel a year, which is utilized as a part of a huge number of suggestions, not restricted to structures, foundation, apparatuses, ships, autos, machines, apparatuses, weapons, and additionally family unit things. Mild Steel is otherwise called carbon steel because of the way that it contains between 0.05– 0.25% carbon. Stainless Steel, then again, contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass. Subsequently, as noticed, the essential distinction between the two is the way that stainless steel is a chromium based steel amalgam, while gentle steel is a carbon based steel combination. (Hoisenni et al, 2014)
Stainless Steel is known for its high erosion protection, which implies that it doesn't stain, rust, or stain; a component that gentle steel does not have. Stainless Steel is additionally exceptionally flexible to affect, because of its abnormal state of hardness. Gentle steel, then again, does not have a similar level of hardness. Rather, it is significantly more moldable and simple to create because of its carbon content. Be that as it may, its surface hardness can be expanded through carburizing.
Also, Stainless Steel could possibly be attractive. Ferritic stainless steels are by and large intended to be attractive while austenitic stainless steels typically are definitely not. Mild Steel normally is attractive which makes it extraordinary for use in certain electrical or mechanical apparatuses. In any case, stainless steel normally has an all the more perfect and streamline look, something that gentle steel needs; which is the reason when feel is imperative, stainless steel is primarly picked, however in the event that the look isn't critical or will be in the end painted or canvassed somehow, at that point the perfect is utilize mild steel, as it is generally more savvy, particularly in huge amounts. (Hoisenni et al, 2014)
Stainless Steel vs Gentle Steel
Stainless steel has a wide assortment of suggestions, for example, in development, family unit things, and so forth. It is generally utilized for cookware and cutlery, for example, blades, forks, and spoons. It is additionally regularly utilized as a part of family unit equipment, surgical instruments, significant machines, modern gear and a car and aviation auxiliary composite and development material in expansive structures. Mild Steel, then again, is principally utilized as a part of development and additionally in engines and electrical apparatuses. (Hoisenni et al, 2014)
Steel has immense protection on buildings than concrete. Steel framing of buildings is comparatively very strong than concrete structures. These structures are manufactured offsite and has high precision. It is also cheaper than concrete structures. Steel framed buildings can be repaired at reduced cost in case of damage due to earthquake. The practical advantages of steel protection in construction structures include:
Rapid designing features are enabled
It is cost effective protection method
It is flexible and simple adaptation features
High quality protection method
It is energy efficient and sustainable method (Hwang et al, 2017)
The main role of commissioning agent is to plan and execute the construction process. Commissioning plan usually directs the process of construction, resolving the project scheduling, roles & responsibilities, implementing the lines of communication as well as reporting. Commissioning agent also attempts to resolves issues in the construction project. Scheme design generally involves the feasibility analysis of design concept, designing team is initially responsible for the development of feasible schematic design for every construction project. Detailed design throws light on detailed specification of the project regarding labor and raw materials. Initially, an outline specification is made (RICS, 1996). This outline focuses on major requirements of the construction. Contract document is the agreement between owner and the contractor. Contract documentation generally explains the nature and scope of the contract. Well defined scope is essential for the documentation. The advancement of a development design is especially undifferentiated from the improvement of a decent office outline. The organizer must measure the expenses and unwavering quality of various alternatives while in the meantime protecting specialized practicality. Development arranging is more troublesome in some routes since the building procedure is dynamic as the site and the physical office change after some time as development continues. Then again, development operations have a tendency to be genuinely standard starting with one anticipate then onto the next, though auxiliary or establishment subtle elements may contrast impressively starting with one office then onto the next.
Shaping a decent development design is an especially difficult issue. There are various conceivable plans accessible for any given undertaking. While past experience is a decent manual for development arranging, each undertaking is probably going to have extraordinary issues or openings that may require extensive resourcefulness and innovativeness to overcome or abuse. Tragically, it is very hard to give coordinate direction concerning general systems or procedures to frame great designs in all conditions (Mortledge et al, 2005). There are a few proposals or issues that can be routed to portray the attributes of good designs, yet this does not really advise an organizer how to find a decent arrangement. In any case, as in the outline procedure, systems of deterioration in which arranging is separated into subproblems and various leveled arranging in which general exercises are repeatably subdivided into more particular assignments can be promptly received as a rule (NSW, 2005). From the point of view of development temporary workers or the development divisions of expansive firms, the arranging procedure for development ventures comprises of three phases that occur between the minute in which an organizer begins the arrangement for the development of an office to the minute in which the assessment of the last yield of the development procedure is done.
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