Analysis of Technology - Related Business Problem in Organizations - Analysis Assessment Answers

August 17, 2017
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Question: Analysis Assignment

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  • Select an engineering, business or logistics management problem;
  • Analyse it using Soft Systems Concepts and ideas;
  • Suggest you select a “real world” problem

    • In your organisation with which you are familiar, or
    • In the business and/or government sectors, or
    • In the economy generally;

  • Use as many notes, references and case studies as you can get hold of and need to;
  • Use surrogate names and organisations if you wish;

    • About 3000 words with diagrams etc

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Solution:  Analysis of Technology – Related Business Problem in Organizations


Various Business entities these days are facing lot of problems and issues such as competition, globalization, complexity, innovation and technology related problems. The pace at which technology is improving is considered to be increasing at an exponential rate. Thus, business entities are forced to implement latest technologies in their products and services in order to satisfy their customers and also stay competitive in global and local markets. (, 2016) Investing in technology is actually considered to a company’s important asset but it can turn out to be a disadvantage in case where competitors plan to implement next – generation latest technologies in their processes to achieve high number of customers and profits. Thus, there is a rise of conflict in which current best technologies cannot provide an insight of future best technologies. Thus, there is continual need to solve the problem related to technology usage by developing a long – term strategy to implement and a technology in their processes and operations and also remain flexible to have the benefit of unforeseen technology usage. (, 2016)

In order to analyze the technology implementation, issues and impact on organizations and business entities, various researches have been carried out. Studies show that technology plays a very important role in various business entities of almost all domains. Technology has the power to enhance the way in which business operations and processes are carried out in a very competitive and effective way compared to the traditional approach. (Kazanjian, 1988) Having an in – depth and proper understanding of the particular problems related to Information Technology (IT) implementation is very necessary for the development and establishment of precise technology principles and effective approaches associated with the information system management in any business entity. Every single issue is significant in its own way as they have an impact on both the organization and technology implementation within the organization. Research carried out in this regard show that implementation of technology in any organization is dependent on three main factors. They are described as follows. Firstly, having a proper strategic planning for the implementation of Information Technology is very essential to achieve effectiveness of implementation of IT in the organization. (Beaumaster, 2000) Table – 1 provides a detailed analysis of the issues existing in implementation of Information Technology (IT) and its categorizations.

Serial No. Leadership – related issues Issues in Management process Issues in Organization Environment Issues in various Technical Systems Issues related to Personnel

Lack of co – ordination in an organization’s inter department technologies Improper strategic planning on technology implementation Technology does not meet organizational culture Existing Systems Organizational capability to acquire the latest technology and expertise

Individual Support Technology Budgeting issues Issues in internal and external processes Technology Standardization and Compatibility with existing processes and technology Individual personnel expertise

Lack of organizational support for technology implementation Organization directives Changing technologies Internal Leadership

Improper planning on technology related scheduling and timeframes Written Guidelines Staffing issues

Employee / employees hesitance to technology change
Insufficient training on technology adopted

Table – 1 A detailed analysis of the issues existing in implementation of Information Technology (IT) and its categorizations

Why Organizations need to introduce new technology

With the advent of various kinds of new technologies, many changes have been effectively encountered in business entities and their workplace in terms of effectiveness and competency. Though technologies are meant for high benefits to business entities but there are several challenges which the companies face due to introduction and implementation of technology. Few such challenges include achieving user acceptance and acquiring complete approval on usage of technology and on the other hand, maintaining an efficient level of product performance and also productivity. (AHMAD, 2014)

There are several factors that make an impact on the acceptance of technology by an individual such as peers’, age, gender, perceptions etc. There are various reasons why various business entities make a decision to introduce new technology in their operations and processes. (R. Werlinger, K. Hawkey and K. Beznosov, 2008) They are cost reduction, increase product or service quality, to enhance productivity, up – to – date products, reduced dependency on skilled employees, newly introduced technology is interesting, implementation of technology in Competitor Company and to change the relations and processes between various departments in an organization. Introduction of new technology has always posed many limitations and challenges thus, affecting its effectiveness. (AHMAD, 2014)

Issues faced by Technology changes

The advanced directors have the obligation to present and incorporate new systems and aptitudes to present them to their representatives with a specific end goal to increase high capability in the new working styles. They should be upheld in bringing change in their vocation and work-style and be promptly acknowledged in the new framework with self regard. The change should be made straight - forward and simple and broadcast another time for the accomplishment of everybody including administration so that the fixation may be feasible for incorporation to the largest amount. (AHMAD, 2014)

Innovation examine proposes that there are authoritative and technological elements that point of confinement the selection and utilization of advancements. Without a doubt there is confirmation that various angles, for example, authoritative size, assets, administration backing, and advancement history impact the degree of innovation selection (Dawson, 2007) The change because of another innovation in an association confronts money related obstructions as well as numerous political what's more, social hindrances. Because of lacking back or inept representatives an association may smother during the time spent advancement. While an association with great assets of cash, time and specialized ability can increase aggressive edge over its adversaries. In addition absence of intensity among associations additionally represents a danger to reception of new innovation. (R. Werlinger, K. Hawkey and K. Beznosov, 2008) With respect to political obstructions to innovation one can concur that the presentation of new innovation and monetary change all the more for the most part, may at the same time influence the dispersion of political power. Specifically divisions the administrative hindrances to passage additionally play a critical errand in choosing the power of associations. (AHMAD, 2014)

The associations should welcome advancements energetically to get by in today's dynamic business situation. There are numerous associations which are restless of progress the reason might be unavoidable circumstances. Some time recently, the society finds fitting answer for the social issues the going with changes uncover these issues at dangers with more noteworthy speed. (R. Werlinger, K. Hawkey and K. Beznosov, 2008)The concerned powers must be cautious and utilize changes in their method for functioning all things considered issues obstruct the development of the association. Henceforth, it requests a style of administration, prize framework and completely another method for thinking among worker's relationship and hierarchical matters. The administration should be uprooted as they make impediment during the time spent change. Old styles and systems should be redesigned to accomplish better success and efficiency. (AHMAD, 2014)

This issue may be controlled by driving periodic meeting furthermore inter - departmental meetings. Employees being unfit with new development feel feebleness with their work. The organization should manage their future prospect and give them best workplaces like get ready program, refresher courses related to their occupation at a couple of between times. (R. Werlinger, K. Hawkey and K. Beznosov, 2008) Mechanical planners and work compel officers may be offered get ready to handle mental issues. In this manner, a strong gathering and inviting working environment may be defended which is altogether key for the change of an affiliation moreover, supportive for new advancements and research. Advancement has made working more adjusted anyway it should not include that delegates' commitment is not required. Since, it has made them feel even dull or critical once in a while. There is need as for organization to total at this opinion isolation and work on another environment wherein delegates may feel themselves more huge and important. (AHMAD, 2014)

In present business situation it is troublesome for the associations to work in distance and be impervious to changes. Comprehensively, Experimental and mechanical developments have announced that the fittest will continue and the individuals who can't conform to changes will be ended. Advancements are consistently changing and are a basic donor to the turbulent showcases. Firms contrast since they create capabilities in various advances (Dasgupta, Gupta and Sahay, 2011). The associations should change their frameworks and working auspicious in the meantime advanced business can't ignore the humanitarian part of the circumstance or maintain a strategic distance from its workers who are the focal principle player of any association.

Technological issues in Human Resources

The utilization of the innovation arranged procedures in an association are influenced by different factors, which are highlighted as described below -

  • Representative introduction - The workers of the association should be persuaded by the actuality the utilization of innovation in the procedures will help in producing better and enhanced results contrasted with the current procedures.
  • Work Culture - Work culture additionally influences the acknowledgment of the usage of new framework in an organisation. The measurements of better results can be opportune and exact data, convenience and finishing of work in lesser time. (C. Banerji, 2013)
  • Security Concerns - A framework or procedure intended for one nation may not be compelling in other country. Implementation issues crosswise over limits come with the difficulties of information security and information development crosswise over limits.
  • Cost factor - Cost is an essential factor to be taken thought some time recently execution of the e-frameworks. The organizations should organize and take the choices of acknowledgment and execution of e-frameworks on the premise of basic, crucial and alluring operations. (C. Banerji, 2013)
  • Learning and Training - during the time spent Learning and Training to the new technology be an unwieldy and tedious process. It might be testing for the clients in the event that they don't discover it easy to use.
  • Technical restriction - An association can't rely on upon innovative sites or programming totally to handle each issues identified with HR. A site can't ever supplant a talented expert. Representatives may not be capable to settle on faculties of decision from the site and may need to talk about the issues by and by with HR specialists or experts, if there should be an occurrence of questions, confronted by them. (C. Banerji, 2013)

Analysis of Technological issues using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)

What is Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)?

Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is a concept developed from the research conducted at Lancaster University. The main aim of the research was to apply the concept of Systems Engineering methods to solve and cater the real – time issues associated with management problems and as well as engineering problems. In other words it can be said that the researchers’ chose the method to apply Hard Systems concept in order to solve the real – time issues of business and engineering. (Burge, 2015) Researchers’ who worked on the Soft Systems Methodology development are Brian Wilson and Peter Checkland. These two researchers’ developed a group of tools in order to help users’ carry out the analysis process and use SSM in their analysis. They are described as follows:

  1. Rich Picture
  2. Conceptual Model
  4. Formal Systems Model (Burge, 2015)

Figure – 1 provides a pictorial representation of Summary of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) in general.

Summary of Soft Systems Methodology

Figure – 1 Summary of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)

Referring to Figure – 1, it is clear that SSM manages two different types of activities. That are – (1) ‘Real – World’ activities which involves people that are included in the situation and (2) ‘Systems Thinking’ activities in which the business analyst somehow ensures to abstract solutions to problems from real – time by carrying out his systems thinking. In this particular activity, people involved in the problem situation have no such compulsion to participate. Following is the analysis of Technology – Related Business Problem in Organizations using the seven steps / stages of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). (Simonsen, 1994)

  • Stage 1 and Stage 2:

Stage 1 and Stage 2 of SSM focuses on the development of real – time problem situation picture. So the problem situation considered in the report is one of the business related problem which is the implementation of Technology in Organizations. Though technology is meant to reduce man power, reduce costs and high efficiency etc, there are several issues faced by business entities in the implementation of technology in their processes and operations. Few of these issues include employee resistance to get acquainted to the technology, customer demands; competitors implement the technology, insufficient training etc. Consider an Organization named XYZ Company having implemented a cloud - based technology around a year back. After one year, a new technology (latest version) is released and its competitor company has implemented that technology. Thus, XYZ Company is forced to acquire the new cloud - based technology in order to fulfil the demands of customers and also to stay competitive in market. This is actually a loss of acquiring previous technology. (Simonsen, 1994)

  • Stage 3:

In this stage, there is a smooth transition from real – world problem situation to systems thinking by using mnemonic having 6 elements called ‘CATWOE’.

  • C: Refers to the Customers. Here the Customers for XYZ Company are various companies including IT and Non – IT companies requiring cloud services and also individual / personal cloud users’
  • A: Refers to the Actors who are supposed to carry out the main processes of system. In this situation, Actors are of two kinds. One on business – side of XYZ Company and other on customer – side. Business side Actors are the one who introduce and explain the cloud – based services to customers such as representatives. Customer side Actors are the ones who manage the processes in cloud environment.
  • T: Refers to Transformation process. Cloud environment on the customer side is basically the transformation process where the important documents and files are inputs to cloud and are stored in cloud effectively.
  • W: Refers to Weltanschauung (perspective) through which root definition is referred. In this situation, the need to store large amount of data in a single and secured space and having the ability to access the data anytime and anywhere
  • O: Refers to the System Owners who has all the authority over the process. In this situation, customers are the ultimate Owners of the cloud and have the power to discontinue the cloud – based services from XYZ Company in case of any kind of issue arising in their service effectiveness
  • E: Refers to the various Environmental constraints on the technology system in action. In this case there are no such environmental constraints on cloud technology as it is tending to become an eco – friendly technology (Simonsen, 1994)
  • Stage 4:

Conceptual Model developed for Soft Systems Methodology

Figure – 2: Conceptual Model developed for Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)

Source: (Burge, 2015)

  • Stage 5:

As discussed in Stage 2 the trend of changing technological implementations very repetitively tends to create problems for not only the customers but also employees within the organization. All of this at the end affects the end user customer experience.  So the approach defined in Stage 4 can be used instead of having focus on competing with other companies only on the basis of technological front. Moreover frequent technological improvements are most vital to organizations such as ecommerce, online marketing etc and don’t apply to all industries.

  • Stage 6 and Stage 7:

The primary goal of this activity is to avoid extreme frequent technological changes in organizations to avoid affecting the employee productivity and customer experience in a negative way. Solving this problem in a way that the organization does not stay extremely legacy is also important. Since real implementation is not always as practical as the theoretical or ideal methodologies we need to acknowledge the fact that this problem cannot be solved just by following the steps mentioned above in a linear fashion. The real implementation might need to go through these steps multiple times, checking the feasibility of each of the stages. Another benefit of implementing these changes in iterations is that it is possible to gain valuable feedback of how employee experience and customer experience is getting improved after reducing the rate at which the technological implementation is changed. This exercise does not intend to stop technological growth in organizations but tries to promote the idea that software systems must be built in a way to scale, embrace change and provide a seamless experience to the end user.

Recommendations and Conclusion

It is highly recommended for XYZ Company and other companies in general to implement a new technology in their operations and processes which is suitable for their company and analyse the effectiveness of implementing the technology thoroughly. It is also recommended that XYZ Company should develop a long – term strategy to implement any particular technology associated with cloud computing before actually implementing it in their processes. Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is a seven stage methodology process that is used to effectively analyze the real – time issues and problems associated with any kind of business or management. The four set of tools that are extremely useful and important in the analysis of Soft Systems Methodology are Rich Picture – where in the business analyst develops a real – time and realistic picture of the problem statement providing the clear – cut idea about the problem situation existing in the business or management. Second tool refers to Conceptual model – where in the business analyst takes a transition from real – time problem situation to development of a conceptual model to further analyze the problems in business or management. Third tool refers to CATWOE analysis referring to various factors such as Customers, Actors, Transformation process, Weltanschauung, Owners and Environmental constraints which play an important role in the analysis of problem. And lastly, the fourth tool is development of a formal systems model. SSM is an effective methodology as both real – world and systems thinking and conceptual model are developed for the analysis of business or management issues.

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